GPU Programming

Chapel includes preliminary work to target NVidia GPUs using CUDA. This work is under active development and has not yet been tested under a wide variety of environments. We have tested it on systems with NVidia Tesla P100 GPUs and CUDA 11.0 and a system with NVidia Ampere A100 GPUs with CUDA 11.6. The current implementation will only apply to certain forall and foreach loops.

We also require LLVM to be used as Chapel’s backend compiler (i.e. CHPL_LLVM must be set to system or bundled). For more information about these settings see Optional Settings.


To deploy code to a GPU, put the relevant code in an on statement targeting a GPU sublocale (i.e. here.gpus[0]).

Any arrays that are declared in the body of this on statement will be allocated into unified memory and will be accessible on the GPU. Chapel will generate CUDA kernels for all eligible loops in the on block. Loops are eligible when:

  • They are order-independent (e.g., forall or foreach).

  • They only make use of known compiler primitives that are fast and local. Here “fast” means “safe to run in a signal handler” and “local” means “doesn’t cause any network communication”. In practice, this means loops not containing any non-inlined function calls.

  • They are free of any call to a function that fails to meet the above criteria, accesses outer variables, or are recursive.

Any non-eligible loop will be executed on the CPU.

Setup and Compilation

To enable GPU support set the environment variable: CHPL_LOCALE_MODEL=gpu before building Chapel. Chapel’s build system will automatically try and deduce where your installation of CUDA exists. If the build system fails to do this, or you would like to use a different CUDA installation, you can set CHPL_CUDA_PATH environment variable to the CUDA installation root.

We also suggest setting CHPL_RT_NUM_THREADS_PER_LOCALE=1 (this is necessary if using CUDA 10).

To compile a program simply execute chpl as normal. By default the generated code will target compute capability 6.0 (specifically by passing --cuda-gpu-arch=sm_60 when invoking clang). If you would like to target a different compute capability (necessary for example, when targeting Tesla K20 GPUs) you can pass --gpu-arch to chpl and specify a different value there. This may also be set using the CHPL_CUDA_ARCH environment variable.

If you would like to view debugging information you can pass --verbose to your generated executable. This output will show the invocation of CUDA kernel calls along with various other interactions with the GPU such as memory operations. You may also use the GPUDiagnostics module to gather similar information.


The following example illustrates running a computation on a GPU as well as a CPU. When jacobi is called with a GPU locale it will allocate the arrays A and B on the device memory of the GPU and we generate three GPU kernels for the forall loops in the function.

config const nSteps = 10;
config const n = 10;

writeln("on GPU:");
writeln("on CPU:");

proc jacobi(loc) {
  on loc {
    var A, B: [0..n+1] real;

    A[0] = 1; A[n+1] = 1;
    forall i in 1..n { A[i] = i:real; }

    for step in 1..nSteps {
      forall i in 1..n { B[i] = 0.33333 * (A[i-1] + A[i] + A[i+1]); }
      forall i in 1..n { A[i] = 0.33333 * (B[i-1] + B[i] + B[i+1]); }

Multi-Locale Support

As of Chapel 1.27.0 the GPU locale model may be used alongside communication layers (values of CHPL_COMM) other than none. This enables programs to use GPUs across nodes.

In this mode, normal remote access is supported outside of loops that are offloaded to the GPU; however, remote access within a kernel is not supported. An idiomatic way to use all GPUs available across locales is with nested coforall loops like the following:

coforall loc in Locales do on loc {
  coforall gpu in here.gpus do on gpu {
    forall {
      // ...

For more examples see the tests under test/gpu/native/multiLocale.