AutoMath¶
Note
All Chapel programs automatically use
this module by default.
An explicit use
statement is not necessary.
This module provides mathematical constants and functions.
Warning
The module name ‘AutoMath’ is unstable. If you want to use qualified naming
on the symbols within it, please use
or import
the Math
module.
It includes wrappers for many of the constants and functions in the C Math library, which is part of the C Language Standard (ISO/IEC 9899) as described in Section 7.12. Please consult that standard for an authoritative description of the expected properties of those constants and routines.
In general, where the C math library provides a double and a float version of a function, the float version has a suffix ‘f’. In the Chapel interface, the suffix is dropped, and the type of the operand determines which version is called – according to the usual function overloading and resolution rules. Normally, the result has the same precision as the argument(s). Please consult the C standard for specifics.
Rounding – The rounding mode for floating-point addition (subtraction) is implementation-defined.
Error Handling – At present, Chapel does not provide control over error
handling in the AutoMath module. The default behavior is as if the macro
math_errhandling
is set to 0: Given erroneous input at run-time,
all math functions will return an implementation-defined value; no
exception will be generated.
Constant and Function Definitions¶
- proc abs(x: int(?w))¶
Returns the absolute value of the integer argument.
- Return type
The type of x.
- proc abs(x: uint(?w))
Returns the absolute value of the unsigned integer argument.
- Return type
The type of x.
- proc abs(param x: integral) param
Returns the absolute value of the integer param argument x.
- proc abs(x: real(64)): real(64)
Returns the magnitude of the real argument x.
- proc abs(x: real(32)): real(32)
Returns the magnitude of the real argument x.
- proc abs(x: imag(64)): real(64)
Returns the real magnitude of the imaginary argument x.
- proc abs(x: imag(32)): real(32)
Returns the real magnitude of the imaginary argument x.
- proc abs(x: complex(?w)): real(w/2)
Returns the magnitude (often called modulus) of complex x.
In concert with the related
phase
(a.k.a. argument) of x, it can be used to recompute x.- Return type
real(w/2)
when x has a type ofcomplex(w)
.
- proc abs(i: int(?w))
Returns the absolute value of the integer argument.
- Return type
The type of i.
Warning
The argument name ‘i’ is deprecated for ‘abs’, please use ‘x’ instead
- proc abs(i: uint(?w))
Returns the absolute value of the unsigned integer argument.
- Return type
The type of i.
Warning
The argument name ‘i’ is deprecated for ‘abs’, please use ‘x’ instead
- proc abs(param i: integral) param
Returns the absolute value of the integer param argument i.
Warning
The argument name ‘i’ is deprecated for param function ‘abs’, please use ‘x’ instead
- proc abs(r: real(64)): real(64)
Returns the magnitude of the real argument r.
Warning
The argument name ‘r’ is deprecated for ‘abs’, please use ‘x’ instead
- proc abs(im: imag(64)): real(64)
Returns the real magnitude of the imaginary argument im.
Warning
The argument name ‘im’ is deprecated for ‘abs’, please use ‘x’ instead
- proc abs(im: imag(32)): real(32)
Returns the real magnitude of the imaginary argument im.
Warning
The argument name ‘im’ is deprecated for ‘abs’, please use ‘x’ instead
- proc abs(z: complex(?w)): real(w/2)
Returns the magnitude (often called modulus) of complex z.
In concert with the related
phase
(a.k.a. argument) of z, it can be used to recompute z.- Return type
real(w/2)
when z has a type ofcomplex(w)
.
Warning
The argument name ‘z’ is deprecated for ‘abs’, please use ‘x’ instead
- proc carg(z: complex(?w)): real(w/2)¶
Returns the phase (often called argument) of complex z, an angle (in radians).
In concert with the related
abs
, the magnitude (a.k.a. modulus) of z, it can be used to recompute z.- Return type
real(w/2)
when z has a type ofcomplex(w)
.
Warning
‘carg’ is deprecated, please use
phase
instead
- proc acos(x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Returns the arc cosine of the argument x.
It is an error if x is less than -1 or greater than 1.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘acos’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc acos(x: real(32)): real(32)
Returns the arc cosine of the argument x.
It is an error if x is less than -1 or greater than 1.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘acos’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc acos(z: complex(64)): complex(64)
Returns the arc cosine of the argument z.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘acos’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc acos(z: complex(128)): complex(128)
Returns the arc cosine of the argument z.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘acos’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc acosh(x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of the argument x.
It is an error if x is less than 1.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘acosh’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc acosh(x: real(32)): real(32)
Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of the argument x.
It is an error if x is less than 1.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘acosh’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc acosh(z: complex(64)): complex(64)
Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of the argument z.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘acosh’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc acosh(z: complex(128)): complex(128)
Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of the argument z.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘acosh’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc asin(x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Returns the arc sine of the argument x.
It is an error if x is less than -1 or greater than 1.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘asin’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc asin(x: real(32)): real(32)
Returns the arc sine of the argument x.
It is an error if x is less than -1 or greater than 1.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘asin’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc asin(z: complex(64)): complex(64)
Returns the arc sine of the argument z.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘asin’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc asin(z: complex(128)): complex(128)
Returns the arc sine of the argument z.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘asin’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc asinh(x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of the argument x.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘asinh’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc asinh(x: real(32)): real(32)
Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of the argument x.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘asinh’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc asinh(z: complex(64)): complex(64)
Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of the argument z.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘asinh’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc asinh(z: complex(128)): complex(128)
Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of the argument z.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘asinh’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc atan(x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Returns the arc tangent of the argument x.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘atan’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc atan(x: real(32)): real(32)
Returns the arc tangent of the argument x.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘atan’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc atan(z: complex(64)): complex(64)
Returns the arc tangent of the argument z.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘atan’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc atan(z: complex(128)): complex(128)
Returns the arc tangent of the argument z.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘atan’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc atan2(y: real(64), x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Returns the arc tangent of the ratio of the two arguments.
This is equivalent to the arc tangent of y / x except that the signs of y and x are used to determine the quadrant of the result.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘atan2’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc atan2(y: real(32), x: real(32)): real(32)
Returns the arc tangent of the two arguments.
This is equivalent to the arc tangent of y / x except that the signs of y and x are used to determine the quadrant of the result.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘atan2’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc atanh(x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of the argument x.
It is an error if x is less than -1 or greater than 1.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘atanh’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc atanh(x: real(32)): real(32)
Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of the argument x.
It is an error if x is less than -1 or greater than 1.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘atanh’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc atanh(z: complex(64)): complex(64)
Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of the argument z.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘atanh’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc atanh(z: complex(128)): complex(128)
Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of the argument z.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘atanh’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc cbrt(x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Returns the cube root of the argument x.
- proc cbrt(x: real(32)): real(32)
Returns the cube root of the argument x.
- proc ceil(x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Returns the value of the argument x rounded up to the nearest integer.
- proc ceil(x: real(32)): real(32)
Returns the value of the argument x rounded up to the nearest integer.
- proc conj(x: complex(?w))¶
Returns the complex conjugate of the complex argument x.
- Return type
A complex number of the same type as x.
- proc conj(x: imag(?w))
Returns the complex conjugate of the imaginary argument x.
- Return type
An imaginary number of the same type as x.
- proc conj(x: int(?w))
Returns the argument x.
- Return type
A number that is not complex or imaginary of the same type as x.
- proc conj(x: uint(?w))
- proc conj(x: real(?w))
- proc conjg(z: complex(?w))¶
Returns the complex conjugate of the complex argument z.
- Return type
A complex number of the same type as z.
Warning
‘conjg’ with a ‘z’ argument has been deprecated, please use ‘conj’ with an ‘x’ argument instead
- proc conjg(z: imag(?w))
Returns the complex conjugate of the imaginary argument z.
- Return type
An imaginary number of the same type as z.
Warning
‘conjg’ with a ‘z’ argument has been deprecated, please use ‘conj’ with an ‘x’ argument instead
- proc conjg(z: int(?w))
Returns the argument z.
- Return type
A number that is not complex or imaginary of the same type as z.
Warning
‘conjg’ with a ‘z’ argument has been deprecated, please use ‘conj’ with an ‘x’ argument instead
- proc conjg(z: uint(?w))
Warning
‘conjg’ with a ‘z’ argument has been deprecated, please use ‘conj’ with an ‘x’ argument instead
- proc conjg(z: real(?w))
Warning
‘conjg’ with a ‘z’ argument has been deprecated, please use ‘conj’ with an ‘x’ argument instead
- proc cproj(z: complex(?w)): complex(w)¶
Returns the projection of z on a Riemann sphere.
Warning
‘cproj’ has been deprecated, please use
riemProj
instead
- proc cos(x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Returns the cosine of the argument x.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘cos’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc cos(x: real(32)): real(32)
Returns the cosine of the argument x.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘cos’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc cos(z: complex(64)): complex(64)
Returns the cosine of the argument z.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘cos’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc cos(z: complex(128)): complex(128)
Returns the cosine of the argument z.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘cos’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc cosh(x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Returns the hyperbolic cosine of the argument x.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘cosh’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc cosh(x: real(32)): real(32)
Returns the hyperbolic cosine of the argument x.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘cosh’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc cosh(z: complex(64)): complex(64)
Returns the hyperbolic cosine of the argument z.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘cosh’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc cosh(z: complex(128)): complex(128)
Returns the hyperbolic cosine of the argument z.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘cosh’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc divceil(param m: integral, param n: integral) param¶
Returns
ceil
(m/n), i.e., the fraction m/n rounded up to the nearest integer.If the arguments are of unsigned type, then fewer conditionals will be evaluated at run time.
- proc divceil(m: integral, n: integral)
Returns
ceil
(m/n), i.e., the fraction m/n rounded up to the nearest integer.If the arguments are of unsigned type, then fewer conditionals will be evaluated at run time.
- proc divceilpos(m: integral, n: integral)¶
A variant of
divceil
that performs no runtime checks. The user must ensure that both arguments are strictly positive (not 0) and are of a signed integer type (not uint).Warning
In an upcoming release ‘divceilpos’ will no longer be included by default. Please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to prepare for this move, noting that its name has changed todivCeilPos
and its argument names have changed to ‘x’ and ‘y’
- proc divfloor(param m: integral, param n: integral) param¶
Returns
floor
(m/n), i.e., the fraction m/n rounded down to the nearest integer.If the arguments are of unsigned type, then fewer conditionals will be evaluated at run time.
- proc divfloor(m: integral, n: integral)
Returns
floor
(m/n), i.e., the fraction m/n rounded down to the nearest integer.If the arguments are of unsigned type, then fewer conditionals will be evaluated at run time.
- proc divfloorpos(m: integral, n: integral)¶
A variant of
divfloor
that performs no runtime checks. The user must ensure that both arguments are strictly positive (not 0) and are of a signed integer type (not uint).Warning
In an upcoming release ‘divfloorpos’ will no longer be included by default. Please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to prepare for this move, noting that its name has changed todivFloorPos
and its argument names have changed to ‘x’ and ‘y’
- proc erf(x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘erf’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the ‘Math’ module to call it
- proc erf(x: real(32)): real(32)
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘erf’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the ‘Math’ module to call it
- proc erfc(x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘erfc’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the ‘Math’ module to call it
- proc erfc(x: real(32)): real(32)
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘erfc’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the ‘Math’ module to call it
- proc exp(x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Returns the value of the Napierian e raised to the power of the argument x.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘exp’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc exp(x: real(32)): real(32)
Returns the value of the Napierian e raised to the power of the argument.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘exp’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc exp(z: complex(64)): complex(64)
Returns the value of the Napierian e raised to the power of the argument.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘exp’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc exp(z: complex(128)): complex(128)
Returns the value of the Napierian e raised to the power of the argument.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘exp’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc exp2(x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Returns the value of 2 raised to the power of the argument x.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘exp2’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc exp2(x: real(32)): real(32)
Returns the value of 2 raised to the power of the argument x.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘exp2’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc expm1(x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Returns one less than the value of the Napierian e raised to the power of the argument x.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘expm1’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc expm1(x: real(32)): real(32)
Returns one less than the value of the Napierian e raised to the power of the argument x.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘expm1’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc floor(x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Returns the value of the argument x rounded down to the nearest integer.
- proc floor(x: real(32)): real(32)
Returns the value of the argument x rounded down to the nearest integer.
- proc INFINITY param: real(64)¶
Returns a value for which
isInf
will return true.Warning
‘INFINITY’ has been deprecated in favor of
inf
, please use that instead
- proc isFinite(x: real(64)): bool¶
Returns true if the argument x is a representation of a finite value; false otherwise.
- proc isFinite(x: real(32)): bool
Returns true if the argument x is a representation of a finite value; false otherwise.
- proc isfinite(x: real(64)): bool¶
Returns true if the argument x is a representation of a finite value; false otherwise.
Warning
‘isfinite’ is deprecated in favor of
isFinite
, please use that instead
- proc isfinite(x: real(32)): bool
Returns true if the argument x is a representation of a finite value; false otherwise.
Warning
‘isfinite’ is deprecated in favor of
isFinite
, please use that instead
- proc isInf(x: real(64)): bool¶
Returns true if the argument x is a representation of infinity; false otherwise.
- proc isInf(x: real(32)): bool
Returns true if the argument x is a representation of infinity; false otherwise.
- proc isinf(x: real(64)): bool¶
Returns true if the argument x is a representation of infinity; false otherwise.
Warning
‘isinf’ is deprecated in favor of
isInf
, please use that instead
- proc isinf(x: real(32)): bool
Returns true if the argument x is a representation of infinity; false otherwise.
Warning
‘isinf’ is deprecated in favor of
isInf
, please use that instead
- proc isNan(x: real(64)): bool¶
Returns true if the argument x does not represent a valid number; false otherwise.
- proc isNan(x: real(32)): bool
Returns true if the argument x does not represent a valid number; false otherwise.
- proc isnan(x: real(64)): bool¶
Returns true if the argument x does not represent a valid number; false otherwise.
Warning
‘isnan’ is deprecated in favor of
isNan
, please use that instead
- proc isnan(x: real(32)): bool
Returns true if the argument x does not represent a valid number; false otherwise.
Warning
‘isnan’ is deprecated in favor of
isNan
, please use that instead
- proc ldexp(x: real(64), n: int(32)): real(64)¶
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘ldexp’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it. Note that the version in the Math module is now named ‘ldExp’
- proc ldexp(x: real(32), n: int(32)): real(32)
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘ldexp’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it. Note that the version in the Math module is now named ‘ldExp’
- proc lgamma(x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘lgamma’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it. Note that the function has been renamed to ‘lnGamma’ there
- proc lgamma(x: real(32)): real(32)
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘lgamma’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it. Note that the function has been renamed to ‘lnGamma’ there
- proc log(x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Returns the natural logarithm of the argument x.
It is an error if x is less than or equal to zero.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘log’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc log(x: real(32)): real(32)
Returns the natural logarithm of the argument x.
It is an error if x is less than or equal to zero.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘log’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc log(z: complex(64)): complex(64)
Returns the natural logarithm of the argument z.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘log’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc log(z: complex(128)): complex(128)
Returns the natural logarithm of the argument z.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘log’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc log10(x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Returns the base 10 logarithm of the argument x.
It is an error if x is less than or equal to zero.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘log10’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc log10(x: real(32)): real(32)
Returns the base 10 logarithm of the argument x.
It is an error if x is less than or equal to zero.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘log10’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc log2(x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Returns the base 2 logarithm of the argument x.
It is an error if x is less than or equal to zero.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘log2’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc log2(x: real(32)): real(32)
Returns the base 2 logarithm of the argument x.
It is an error if x is less than or equal to zero.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘log2’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc log2(val: int(?w))
Returns the base 2 logarithm of the argument x, rounded down.
- Return type
int
It is an error if x is less than or equal to zero.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘log2’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc log2(val: uint(?w))
Returns the base 2 logarithm of the argument x, rounded down.
- Return type
int
It is an error if x is less than or equal to zero.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘log2’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc max(x, y) where !isArray(x) && !isArray(y) && !(isNumeric(_desync(x.type)) && isNumeric(_desync(y.type)))¶
Returns the maximum value of two arguments using the
>
operator for comparison. If one of the arguments isAutoMath.nan
, the result is also nan.- Return type
The type of x.
- proc max(x, y, z ...?k)
Returns the maximum value of 3 or more arguments using the above call.
- proc max(param x: numeric, param y: numeric) param where !(isComplex(x) || isComplex(y))
Returns the maximum of 2 param
int
,uint
,real
, orimag
values as a param.
- proc min(x, y) where !isArray(x) && !isArray(y) && !(isNumeric(_desync(x.type)) && isNumeric(_desync(y.type)))¶
Returns the minimum value of two arguments using the
<
operator for comparison.If one of the arguments is
AutoMath.nan
, the result is also nan.- Return type
The type of x.
- proc min(x, y, z ...?k)
Returns the minimum value of 3 or more arguments using the above call.
- proc min(param x: numeric, param y: numeric) param where !(isComplex(x) || isComplex(y))
Returns the minimum of 2 param
int
,uint
,real
, orimag
values as a param.
- proc mod(param m: integral, param n: integral) param¶
Computes the mod operator on the two arguments, defined as
mod(m,n) = m - n * floor(m / n)
.The result is always >= 0 if n > 0. It is an error if n == 0.
Warning
The argument names ‘m’ and ‘n’ are deprecated for param ‘mod’, please use ‘x’ and ‘y’ instead
- proc mod(m: integral, n: integral)
Computes the mod operator on the two arguments, defined as
mod(m,n) = m - n * floor(m / n)
.If the arguments are of unsigned type, then fewer conditionals will be evaluated at run time.
The result is always >= 0 if n > 0. It is an error if n == 0.
Warning
The argument names ‘m’ and ‘n’ are deprecated for ‘mod’, please use ‘x’ and ‘y’ instead
- proc mod(param x: integral, param y: integral) param
Computes the mod operator on the two arguments, defined as
mod(x,y) = x - y * floor(x / y)
.The result is always >= 0 if y > 0. It is an error if y == 0.
Note
This does not have the same behavior as the Modulus Operators (%) when y is negative.
- proc mod(x: integral, y: integral)
Computes the mod operator on the two arguments, defined as
mod(x,y) = x - y * floor(x / y)
.If the arguments are of unsigned type, then fewer conditionals will be evaluated at run time.
The result is always >= 0 if y > 0. It is an error if y == 0.
Note
This does not have the same behavior as the Modulus Operators (%) when y is negative.
- proc mod(x: real(32), y: real(32)): real(32)
Computes the mod operator on the two numbers, defined as
mod(x,y) = x - y * floor(x / y)
.
- proc mod(x: real(64), y: real(64)): real(64)
Computes the mod operator on the two numbers, defined as
mod(x,y) = x - y * floor(x / y)
.
- proc NAN param: real(64)¶
Returns a value for which
isNan
will return true.Warning
‘NAN’ is deprecated in favor of
nan
, please use that instead
- proc nearbyint(x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Returns the rounded integral value of the argument x determined by the current rounding direction.
nearbyint
will not raise the “inexact” floating-point exception.Warning
In an upcoming release ‘nearbyint’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc nearbyint(x: real(32)): real(32)
Returns the rounded integral value of the argument x determined by the current rounding direction.
nearbyint
will not raise the “inexact” floating-point exception.Warning
In an upcoming release ‘nearbyint’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc phase(x: complex(?w)): real(w/2)¶
Returns the phase (often called argument) of complex x, an angle (in radians).
In concert with the related
abs
, the magnitude (a.k.a. modulus) of x, it can be used to recompute x.- Return type
real(w/2)
when x has a type ofcomplex(w)
.
- proc riemProj(x: complex(?w)): complex(w)¶
Returns the projection of x on a Riemann sphere.
- proc rint(x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Returns the rounded integral value of the argument x determined by the current rounding direction.
rint
may raise the “inexact” floating-point exception.Warning
In an upcoming release ‘rint’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc rint(x: real(32)): real(32)
Returns the rounded integral value of the argument x determined by the current rounding direction.
rint
may raise the “inexact” floating-point exception.Warning
In an upcoming release ‘rint’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc round(x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Returns the nearest integral value of the argument x, returning that value which is larger than x in absolute value for the half-way case.
- proc round(x: real(32)): real(32)
Returns the nearest integral value of the argument x, returning that value which is larger than x in absolute value for the half-way case.
- proc sgn(i: int(?w)): int(8)¶
Returns the signum function of the integer argument i: 1 if positive, -1 if negative, 0 if zero.
Warning
The argument name ‘i’ is deprecated for ‘sgn’, please use ‘x’ instead
- proc sgn(i: uint(?w)): uint(8)
Returns the signum function of the unsigned integer argument i: 1 if positive, -1 if negative, 0 if zero.
Warning
The argument name ‘i’ is deprecated for ‘sgn’, please use ‘x’ instead
- proc sgn(param i: integral) param
Returns the signum function of the integer param argument i: 1 if positive, -1 if negative, 0 if zero.
Warning
The argument name ‘i’ is deprecated for param ‘sgn’, please use ‘x’ instead
- proc sgn(x: int(?w)): int(8)
Returns the signum function of the integer argument x: 1 if positive, -1 if negative, 0 if zero.
- proc sgn(x: uint(?w)): uint(8)
Returns the signum function of the unsigned integer argument x: 1 if positive, -1 if negative, 0 if zero.
- proc sgn(param x: integral) param
Returns the signum function of the integer param argument x: 1 if positive, -1 if negative, 0 if zero.
- proc sgn(x: real(?w)): int(8)
Returns the signum function of the real argument x: 1 if positive, -1 if negative, 0 if zero.
- proc sin(x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Returns the sine of the argument x.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘sin’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc sin(x: real(32)): real(32)
Returns the sine of the argument x.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘sin’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc sin(z: complex(64)): complex(64)
Returns the sine of the argument z.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘sin’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc sin(z: complex(128)): complex(128)
Returns the sine of the argument z.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘sin’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc sinh(x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Returns the hyperbolic sine of the argument x.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘sinh’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc sinh(x: real(32)): real(32)
Returns the hyperbolic sine of the argument x.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘sinh’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc sinh(z: complex(64)): complex(64)
Returns the hyperbolic sine of the argument z.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘sinh’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc sinh(z: complex(128)): complex(128)
Returns the hyperbolic sine of the argument z.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘sinh’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc sqrt(x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Returns the square root of the argument x.
It is an error if the x is less than zero.
- proc sqrt(x: real(32)): real(32)
Returns the square root of the argument x.
It is an error if x is less than zero.
- proc sqrt(x: complex(64)): complex(64)
Returns the square root of the argument z.
- proc sqrt(x: complex(128)): complex(128)
Returns the square root of the argument z.
- proc sqrt(z: complex(64)): complex(64)
Returns the square root of the argument z.
Warning
The argument name ‘z’ is deprecated for ‘sqrt’, please use ‘x’ instead
- proc sqrt(z: complex(128)): complex(128)
Returns the square root of the argument z.
Warning
The argument name ‘z’ is deprecated for ‘sqrt’, please use ‘x’ instead
- proc tan(x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Returns the tangent of the argument x.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘tan’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc tan(x: real(32)): real(32)
Returns the tangent of the argument x.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘tan’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc tan(z: complex(64)): complex(64)
Returns the tangent of the argument z.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘tan’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc tan(z: complex(128)): complex(128)
Returns the tangent of the argument z.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘tan’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc tanh(x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Returns the hyperbolic tangent of the argument x.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘tanh’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc tanh(x: real(32)): real(32)
Returns the hyperbolic tangent of the argument x.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘tanh’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc tanh(z: complex(64)): complex(64)
Returns the hyperbolic tangent of the argument z.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘tanh’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc tanh(z: complex(128)): complex(128)
Returns the hyperbolic tangent of the argument z.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘tanh’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc tgamma(x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘tgamma’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it. Note that the function has been renamed to ‘gamma’ there
- proc tgamma(x: real(32)): real(32)
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘tgamma’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it. Note that the function has been renamed to ‘gamma’ there
- proc trunc(x: real(64)): real(64)¶
Returns the nearest integral value to the argument x that is not larger than x in absolute value.
- proc trunc(x: real(32)): real(32)
Returns the nearest integral value to the argument x that is not larger than x in absolute value.
- proc gcd(in a: int, in b: int): int¶
Returns the greatest common divisor of the integer argument a and b.
Warning
In an upcoming release ‘gcd’ will no longer be included by default, please ‘use’ or ‘import’ the
Math
module to call it
- proc isClose(x, y, relTol = 1e-5, absTol = 0.0): bool¶
Returns true if x and y are approximately equal, else returns false.
relTol specifies the relative tolerance for differences between x and y, while absTol specifies the absolute tolerance. Both must be positive when specified.
x and y must be either real, imag, or complex.
- proc isclose(x, y, rtol = 1e-5, atol = 0.0): bool¶
Returns true if x and y are approximately equal, else returns false.
Warning
isclose with ‘rtol’ and ‘atol’ arguments is now deprecated, please use
isClose
with ‘relTol’ and ‘absTol’ arguments instead
- proc signbit(x: real(32)): bool¶
Returns true if the sign of x is negative, else returns false. It detects the sign bit of zeroes, infinities, and nans
Warning
signbit is unstable and may change its name in the future
- proc signbit(x: real(64)): bool
Returns true if the sign of x is negative, else returns false. It detects the sign bit of zeroes, infinities, and nans
Warning
signbit is unstable and may change its name in the future