Data Parallelism¶
Chapel provides two explicit dataparallel constructs (the forallstatement and the forallexpression) and several idioms that support data parallelism implicitly (wholearray assignment, function and operator promotion, reductions, and scans).
This chapter details data parallelism as follows:
The Forall Statement describes the forall statement.
The Forall Expression describes forall expressions
Forall Intents specifies how variables from outer scopes are handled within forall statements and expressions. TaskPrivate Variables provide a related functionality.
Promotion describes promotion.
Reductions and Scans describes reductions and scans.
Configuration Constants for Default Data Parallelism describes the configuration constants for controlling default data parallelism.
Dataparallel constructs may result in accesses to the same variable
from different tasks, possibly due to aliasing using ref
argument
intents or forall intents, among others. Such accesses are subject to
the Memory Consistency Model
(Memory Consistency Model).
The Forall Statement¶
The forall statement is a concurrent variant of the for statement described in The For Loop.
Syntax¶
The syntax of the forall statement is given by
forallstatement:
'forall' indexvardeclaration 'in' iteratableexpression taskintentclause[OPT] 'do' statement
'forall' indexvardeclaration 'in' iteratableexpression taskintentclause[OPT] blockstatement
'forall' iteratableexpression taskintentclause[OPT] 'do' statement
'forall' iteratableexpression taskintentclause[OPT] blockstatement
[ indexvardeclaration 'in' iteratableexpression taskintentclause[OPT] ] statement
[ iteratableexpression taskintentclause[OPT] ] statement
As with the for statement, the indices may be omitted if they are
unnecessary and the do
keyword may be omitted before a block
statement.
The square bracketed form will resort to serial iteration when
iteratableexpression
does not support parallel iteration. The
forall
form will result in an error when parallel iteration is not
available.
The handling of the outer variables within the forall statement and the
role of taskintentclause
are defined in
Forall Intents.
Execution and Serializability¶
The forall statement evaluates the loop body once for each element
yielded by the iteratableexpression
. Each instance of the forall
loop’s body may be executed concurrently with the others, but this is
not guaranteed. In particular, the loop must be serializable. Details
regarding concurrency and iterator implementation are described
in Parallel Iterators.
This differs from the semantics of the coforall
loop, discussed
in The Coforall Loop, where each iteration is guaranteed to run
using a distinct task. The coforall
loop thus has potentially higher
overhead than a forall loop with the same number of iterations, but in
cases where concurrency is required for correctness, it is essential.
In practice, the number of tasks that will be used to evaluate a
forall
loop is determined by the object or iterator that is
leading the execution of the loop, as is the mapping of iterations to
tasks.
This concept will be formalized in future drafts of the Chapel specification. For now, the primer on parallel iterators provides a brief introduction. Please also refer to UserDefined Parallel Zippered Iterators in Chapel, published in the PGAS 2011 workshop.
Control continues with the statement following the forall loop only after every iteration has been completely evaluated. At this point, all data accesses within the body of the forall loop will be guaranteed to be completed.
A return
statement may not be lexically enclosed in a forall
statement. A yield
statement may only be lexically enclosed in a
forall statement that is within a parallel iterator
Parallel Iterators. A break
statement may not be used
to exit a forall statement. A continue
statement skips the rest of
the current iteration of the forall loop.
Example (forallStmt.chpl).
In the code
forall i in 1..N do a(i) = b(i);the user has stated that the elementwise assignments can execute concurrently. This loop may be executed serially with a single task, or by using a distinct task for every iteration, or by using a number of tasks where each task executes a number of iterations. This loop can also be written as
[i in 1..N] a(i) = b(i);
Zipper Iteration¶
Zipper iteration has the same semantics as described in Zipper Iteration and Parallel Iterators for parallel iteration.
The Forall Expression¶
The forall expression is a concurrent variant of the for expression described in For Expressions.
Syntax¶
The syntax of a forall expression is given by
forallexpression:
'forall' indexvardeclaration 'in' iteratableexpression taskintentclause[OPT] 'do' expression
'forall' iteratableexpression taskintentclause[OPT] 'do' expression
[ indexvardeclaration 'in' iteratableexpression taskintentclause[OPT] ] expression
[ iteratableexpression taskintentclause[OPT] ] expression
As with the for expression, the indices may be omitted if they are
unnecessary. The do
keyword is always required in the keywordbased
notation.
As with the forall statement, the square bracketed form will resort to
serial iteration when iteratableexpression
does not support
parallel iteration. The forall
form will result in an error when
parallel iteration is not available.
The handling of the outer variables within the forall expression and the
role of taskintentclause
are defined in
Forall Intents.
Execution¶
A forall expression is an iterator that executes a forall loop (The Forall Statement), evaluates the body expression on each iteration of the loop, and yields each resulting value.
When a forall expression is used to initialize a variable, such as
var X = forall iterableExpression() do computeValue();
the variable will be inferred to have an array type. The array’s domain
is defined by the iterableexpression
following the same rules as
for promotion, both in the regular case Promotion and in
the zipper case Zipper Promotion.
Example (forallExpr.chpl).
The code
writeln(+ reduce [i in 1..10] i**2);applies a reduction to a forallexpression that evaluates the square of the indices in the range
1..10
.
The forall expression follows the semantics of the forall statement as described in Execution and Serializability.
Zipper Iteration¶
Forall expression also support zippered iteration semantics as described in Zipper Iteration and Parallel Iterators for parallel iteration.
Filtering Predicates in Forall Expressions¶
A filtering predicate is an if expression that is immediately enclosed by a forall expression and does not have an else clause. Such an if expression filters the iterations of the forall expression. The iterations for which the condition does not hold are not reflected in the result of the forall expression.
When a forall expression with a filtering predicate is captured into a variable, the resulting array has a 0based onedimensional domain.
Example (forallFilter.chpl).
The following expression returns every other element starting with the first:
[i in 1..s.size] if i % 2 == 1 then s(i)
Forall Intents¶
If a variable is referenced within the lexical scope of a forall statement or expression and is declared outside that forall construct, it is subject to forall intents, analogously to task intents for taskparallel constructs (see Task Intents). That is, the outer variable is considered to be passed as an actual argument to an implicit formal of the iterator leading the execution of the loop. From there, it is passed down to each task created by that iterator, if any, as an actual argument to an implicit formal of the corresponding task function. A toplevel task passes it down recursively to its child tasks, if any. All references to the variable within the forall construct implicitly refer to a shadow variable, i.e. the corresponding formal argument of the task function or the leading iterator.
When the forall construct is inside a method on a record and accesses a
field of this
, the field is treated as an outer variable. That is,
it is subject to forall intents and all references to this field within
the forall construct implicitly refer to the corresponding shadow
variable.
Each formal argument of a task function or iterator has the default intent by default. For variables of primitive, enum, and class types, this has the effect of capturing the value of the variable at task creation time. Within the lexical scope of the forall construct, the variable name references the captured value instead of the original value.
A formal can be given another intent explicitly by listing it with
that intent in the optional taskintentclause
. For example, for
variables of most types, the ref
intent allows the body of the
forall loop to modify the corresponding original variable or to read
its updated value after concurrent modifications. The in
intent is
an alternative way to obtain taskprivate variables
(see TaskPrivate Variables).
A reduce
forall intent can be used to reduce values across iterations
of a forall loop. While it is similar to the reduce
task intent
(see Task Intents), there is a difference in how values
are combined at the end of a task. With a reduce
forall intent,
each child task combines its accumulated value into its parent task
rather than into an outer variable.
The reduce=
operator accumulates its righthand side values
computed for all iterations executed by a given task into the same
shadow variable for that task.
Rationale.
A forall statement or expression may create tasks in its implementation. Forall intents affect those tasks in the same way that task intents Task Intents affect the behavior of a task construct such as a
coforall
loop.
TaskPrivate Variables¶
A taskprivate variable declared in a forall loop results in a separate shadow variable in each task created by the forall loop’s parallel iterator, as well as a “toplevel” shadow variable created at the top level of the parallel iterator itself. In contrast to regular forall intents Forall Intents, these shadow variables are unrelated to outer variables of the same name, if any.
A given shadow variable is created at the start and destroyed at the end of its task. Within the lexical scope of the body of the forall statement or expression, the variable name refers to the shadow variable created in the task that executed the current yield statement.
The “toplevel” shadow variable is created at the start and destroyed at the end of the parallel iterator. It is referenced in those iterations of the forall loop that are due to “toplevel” yields, i.e. yields that are outside any of the task constructs that the iterator may have.
The syntax of a taskprivate variable declaration in a forall statement’s withclause is:
taskprivatevardecl:
taskprivatevarkind identifier typepart[OPT] initializationpart[OPT]
taskprivatevarkind:
'const'
'var'
'ref'
The declaration of a const
or var
taskprivate variable must
have at least one of typepart
and initializationpart
. A
ref
taskprivate variable must have initializationpart
and
cannot have typepart
. A ref
shadow variable is a reference to
the initializationpart
as calculated at the start of the
corresponding task or the iterator. ref
shadow variables are never
destroyed.
Example (taskprivatevariable.chpl).
In the following example, the
writeln()
statement will observe the first shadow variable 4 times: twice each for the yields “before coforall” and “after coforall”. An additional shadow variable will be created and observed twice for each of the threecoforall
tasks.var cnt: atomic int; // count our shadow variables record R { var id = cnt.fetchAdd(1); } iter myIter() { yield ""; } // serial iterator, unused iter myIter(param tag) where tag == iterKind.standalone { for 1..2 do yield "before coforall"; // shadow var 0 ("toplevel") coforall 1..3 do for 1..2 do yield "inside coforall"; // shadow vars 1..3 for 1..2 do yield "after coforall"; // shadow var 0, again } forall str in myIter() with (var tpv: R) // declare a taskprivate variable do writeln("shadow var: ", tpv.id, " yield: ", str);
Promotion¶
A function that expects one or more scalar arguments but is called with one or more arrays, domains, ranges, or iterators is promoted if the element types of the arrays, the index types of the domains and/or ranges, or the yielded types of the iterators can be resolved to the type of the argument. The rules of when an overloaded function can be promoted are discussed in Function Resolution.
Functions that can be promoted include procedures, operators, casts, and methods. Also note that since class and record field access is performed with getter methods (Variable Getter Methods), field access can also be promoted.
If the original function returns a value or a reference, the corresponding promoted expression is an iterator yielding each computed value or reference.
When a promoted expression is used to initialize a variable, such as
var X = A.x;
in the above example, the variable’s type will be
inferred to be an array. The array’s domain is defined by the expression
that causes promotion:
input expression 
resulting array’s domain 

array 
that array’s domain 
domain 
that domain 
range 
onedimensional domain built from that range 
iterator 
0based onedimensional domain 
Note
Future
We would like to allow the iterator author to specify the shape of the iterator, i.e. the domain of the array that would capture the result of the corresponding promoted expression, such as
var myArray = myScalarFunction(myIterator());
This will be helpful, for example, when the iterator yields one value per an array or domain element that it iterates over internally.
Example (promotion.chpl).
Given the array
var A: [1..5] int = [i in 1..5] i;
and the function
proc square(x: int) return x**2;
then the call square(A)
results in the promotion of the
square
function over the values in the array A
. The result is
an iterator that returns the values 1
, 4
, 9
, 16
, and
25
.
Example (fieldpromotion.chpl).
Given an array of points, such as
A
defined below:record Point { var x: real; var y: real; } var A: [1..5] Point = [i in 1..5] new Point(x=i, y=i);the following statement will create a new array consisting of the
x
field value for each value in A:var X = A.x;and the following call will set the
y
field values for each element in A to 1.0:A.y = 1.0;
Default Arguments¶
When a call is promoted and that call relied upon default arguments (Default Values), the default argument expression can be evaluated many times. For example:
Example (promotesdefault.chpl).
var counter: atomic int; proc nextCounterValue():int { var i = counter.fetchAdd(1); return i; } proc assignCounter(ref x:int, counter=nextCounterValue()) { x = counter; }Here the function assignCounter has a default argument providing the next value from an atomic counter as the value to set.
var A: [1..5] int; assignCounter(A);The assignCounter call uses both the default argument for counter as well as promotion. When these features are combined, the default argument will be evaluated once per promoted element. As a result, after this command, A will contain the elements 0 1 2 3 4 in some order.
Zipper Promotion¶
Promotion also supports zippered iteration semantics as described in Zipper Iteration and Parallel Iterators for parallel iteration.
Consider a function f
with formal arguments s1
, s2
, … that
are promoted and formal arguments a1
, a2
, … that are not
promoted. The call
f(s1, s2, ..., a1, a2, ...)
is equivalent to
[(e1, e2, ...) in zip(s1, s2, ...)] f(e1, e2, ..., a1, a2, ...)
The usual constraints of zipper iteration apply to zipper promotion so the promoted actuals must have the same shape.
A zipper promotion can be captured in a variable, such as
var X = f(s1, s2, ..., a1, a2, ...);
using the above example. If so,
the domain of the resulting array is defined by the first argument that
causes promotion. The rules are the same as in the nonzipper case.
Example (zipperpromotion.chpl).
Given a function defined as
proc foo(i: int, j: int) { return (i,j); }and a call to this function written
writeln(foo(1..3, 4..6));then the output is
(1, 4) (2, 5) (3, 6)
Whole Array Operations and Evaluation Order¶
Whole array operations are a form of promotion as applied to operators rather than functions.
Whole array assignment is one example. It is is implicitly parallel. The array assignment statement:
LHS = RHS;
is equivalent to
forall (e1,e2) in zip(LHS,RHS) do
e1 = e2;
The semantics of whole array assignment and promotion are different from most array programming languages. Specifically, the compiler does not insert array temporaries for such operations if any of the righthand side array expressions alias the lefthand side expression.
Example.
If
A
is an array declared over the indices1..5
, then the following codes are not equivalent:A[2..4] = A[1..3] + A[3..5];and
var T = A[1..3] + A[3..5]; A[2..4] = T;This follows because, in the former code, some of the new values that are assigned to
A
may be read to compute the sum depending on the number of tasks used to implement the data parallel statement.
Reductions and Scans¶
Chapel provides reduction and scan expressions that apply operators to aggregate expressions in stylized ways. Reduction expressions collapse the aggregate’s values down to a summary value. Scan expressions compute an aggregate of results where each result value stores the result of a reduction applied to all of the elements in the aggregate up to that expression. Chapel provides a number of predefined reduction and scan operators, and also supports a mechanism for the user to define additional reductions and scans (Chapter [User_Defined_Reductions_and_Scans]).
Reduction Expressions¶
A reduction expression applies a reduction operator to an aggregate expression, collapsing the aggregate’s dimensions down into a result value (typically a scalar or summary expression that is independent of the input aggregate’s size). For example, a sum reduction computes the sum of all the elements in the input aggregate expression.
The syntax for a reduction expression is given by:
reduceexpression:
reducescanoperator 'reduce' iteratableexpression
classtype 'reduce' iteratableexpression
reducescanoperator: one of
+ * &&  &  ^ 'min' 'max' 'minmax' 'minloc' 'maxloc'
Chapel’s predefined reduction operators are defined by
reducescanoperator
above. In order, they are: sum, product,
logicaland, logicalor, bitwiseand, bitwiseor, bitwiseexclusiveor,
minimum, maximum, minimumandmaximum,
minimumwithlocation, and maximumwithlocation. The
minimum reduction returns the minimum value as defined by the <
operator. The maximum reduction returns the maximum value as defined by
the >
operator. The minimumandmaximum reduction returns a tuple
with the first component being the result of the minimum reduction
and the second component being the result of the maximum reduction.
The minimumwithlocation reduction returns the lowest
index position with the minimum value (as defined by the <
operator).
The maximumwithlocation reduction returns the lowest index position
with the maximum value (as defined by the >
operator). When a minimum,
maximum, minimumandmaximum, minimumwithlocation,
or maximumwithlocation reduction encounters a NaN, the result
is or contains a NaN.
The expression on the righthand side of the reduce
keyword can be
of any type that can be iterated over, provided the reduction operator
can be applied to the values yielded by the iteration. For example, the
bitwiseand operator can be applied to arrays of boolean or integral
types to compute the bitwiseand of all the values in the array.
For the minimumwithlocation and maximumwithlocation reductions, the
argument on the righthand side of the reduce
keyword must be a
2tuple. Its first component is the collection of values for which the
minimum/maximum value is to be computed. The second argument component
is a collection of indices with the same size and shape that provides
names for the locations of the values in the first component. The
reduction returns a tuple containing the minimum/maximum value in the
first argument component and the value at the corresponding location in
the second argument component.
Example (reduceloc.chpl).
The first line below computes the smallest element in an array
A
as well as its index, storing the results inminA
andminALoc
, respectively. It then computes the largest element in a forall expression making calls to a functionfoo()
, storing the value and its number inmaxVal
andmaxValNum
.var (minA, minALoc) = minloc reduce zip(A, A.domain); var (maxVal, maxValNum) = maxloc reduce zip([i in 1..n] foo(i), 1..n);
Userdefined reductions are specified by preceding the keyword
reduce
by the class type that implements the reduction interface as
described
in UserDefined Reductions and Scans.
Scan Expressions¶
A scan expression applies a scan operator to an aggregate expression, resulting in an aggregate expression of the same size and shape. The output values represent the result of the operator applied to all elements up to and including the corresponding element in the input.
The syntax for a scan expression is given by:
scanexpression:
reducescanoperator 'scan' iteratableexpression
classtype 'scan' iteratableexpression
The predefined scans are defined by reducescanoperator
. These are
identical to the predefined reductions and are described
in Reduction Expressions.
The expression on the righthand side of the scan can be of any type that can be iterated over and to which the operator can be applied.
Example.
Given an array
var A: [1..3] int = 1;that is initialized such that each element contains one, then the code
writeln(+ scan A);outputs the results of scanning the array with the sum operator. The output is
1 2 3
Userdefined scans are specified by preceding the keyword scan
by
the class type that implements the scan interface as described
in UserDefined Reductions and Scans.
Configuration Constants for Default Data Parallelism¶
The following configuration constants are provided to control the degree of data parallelism over ranges, default domains, and default arrays:
Config Const 
Type 
Default 



top level 






The configuration constant dataParTasksPerLocale
specifies the
number of tasks to use when executing a forall loop over a range,
default domain, or default array. The actual number of tasks may be
fewer depending on the other two configuration constants. A value of
zero results in using the default value.
The configuration constant dataParIgnoreRunningTasks
, when true, has
no effect on the number of tasks to use to execute the forall loop. When
false, the number of tasks per locale is decreased by the number of
tasks that are already running on the locale, with a minimum value of
one.
The configuration constant dataParMinGranularity
specifies the
minimum number of iterations per task created. The number of tasks is
decreased so that the number of iterations per task is never less than
the specified value.
For distributed domains and arrays that have these same configuration constants (e.g., Block and Cyclic distributions), these same module level configuration constants are used to specify their default behavior within each locale.