# Regexp¶

Usage

use Regexp;


Regular expression support.

The regular expression support is built on top of the RE2 regular expression library. As such, the exact regular expression syntax available is the syntax from RE2, which is available within the RE2 project at https://github.com/google/re2 and included here for your convenience.

## Enabling Regular Expression Support¶

Setting the environment variable CHPL_REGEXP to re2 will enable regular expression support with the RE2 library:

export CHPL_REGEXP=re2


Then, rebuild Chapel. The RE2 library will be expanded from a release included in the Chapel distribution.

Note

if re2 support is not enabled (which is the case in quickstart configurations as in Chapel Quickstart Instructions), the functionality described below will result in either a compile-time or a run-time error.

## Using Regular Expression Support¶

use Regexp;
var myRegexp = compile("a+");


Now you can use these methods on regular expressions: regexp.search, regexp.match, regexp.split, regexp.matches.

You can also use the string versions of these methods: string.search, string.match, string.split, or string.matches.

Lastly, you can include regular expressions in the format string for readf for searching on QIO channels using the %/<regexp>/ syntax.

## Regular Expression Examples¶

a+
Match one or more a characters
[[:space:]]* or \s* (which would be "\\s*" in a string)
Match zero or more spaces
[[:digit:]]+ or \d+ (which would be "\\d+" in a string)
Match one or more digits
([a-zA-Z0-9]+[[:space:]]+=[[:space:]]+[0-9]+
Match sequences of the form <letters-and-digits> <spaces> = <digits>

## RE2 regular expression syntax reference¶

Single characters:
.            any character, possibly including newline (s=true)
[xyz]        character class
[^xyz]       negated character class
\d           Perl character class (see below)
\D           negated Perl character class (see below)
[:alpha:]    ASCII character class
[:^alpha:]   negated ASCII character class
\pN          Unicode character class (one-letter name)
\p{Greek}    Unicode character class
\PN          negated Unicode character class (one-letter name)
\P{Greek}    negated Unicode character class

Composites:
xy           «x» followed by «y»
x|y          «x» or «y» (prefer «x»)

Repetitions:
x*           zero or more «x», prefer more
x+           one or more «x», prefer more
x?           zero or one «x», prefer one
x{n,m}       «n» or «n»+1 or ... or «m» «x», prefer more
x{n,}        «n» or more «x», prefer more
x{n}         exactly «n» «x»
x*?          zero or more «x», prefer fewer
x+?          one or more «x», prefer fewer
x??          zero or one «x», prefer zero
x{n,m}?      «n» or «n»+1 or ... or «m» «x», prefer fewer
x{n,}?       «n» or more «x», prefer fewer
x{n}?        exactly «n» «x»

Grouping:
(re)         numbered capturing group
(?P<name>re) named & numbered capturing group
(?:re)       non-capturing group
(?flags)     set flags within current group; non-capturing
(?flags:re)  set flags during re; non-capturing

Flags:
i            case-insensitive (default false)
m            multi-line mode: «^» and «$» match begin/end line in addition to begin/end text (default false) s let «.» match «\n» (default false) U ungreedy: swap meaning of «x*» and «x*?», «x+» and «x+?», etc. (default false) Flag syntax is: «xyz» (set) «-xyz» (clear) «xy-z» (set «xy», clear «z») Empty strings: ^ at beginning of text or line («m»=true)$            at end of text (like «\z» not «\Z») or line («m»=true)
\A           at beginning of text
\b           at word boundary («\w» on one side and «\W», «\A», or «\z» on the
other)
\B           not a word boundary
\z           at end of text

Escape sequences:
\a           bell (== \007)
\f           form feed (== \014)
\t           horizontal tab (== \011)
\n           newline (== \012)
\r           carriage return (== \015)
\v           vertical tab character (== \013)
\*           literal «*», for any punctuation character «*»
\123         octal character code (up to three digits)
\x7F         hex character code (exactly two digits)
\x{10FFFF}   hex character code
\C           match a single byte even in UTF-8 mode
\Q...\E      literal text «...» even if «...» has punctuation

Character class elements:
x            single character
A-Z          character range (inclusive)
\d           Perl character class (see below)
[:foo:]      ASCII character class «foo»
\p{Foo}      Unicode character class «Foo»
\pF          Unicode character class «F» (one-letter name)

Named character classes as character class elements:
[\d]         digits (== \d)
[^\d]        not digits (== \D)
[\D]         not digits (== \D)
[^\D]        not not digits (== \d)
[[:name:]]   named ASCII class inside character class (== [:name:])
[^[:name:]]  named ASCII class inside negated character class (== [:^name:])
[\p{Name}]   named Unicode property inside character class (== \p{Name})
[^\p{Name}]  named Unicode property inside negated character class (==\P{Name})

Perl character classes:
\d           digits (== [0-9])
\D           not digits (== [^0-9])
\s           whitespace (== [\t\n\f\r ])
\S           not whitespace (== [^\t\n\f\r ])
\w           word characters (== [0-9A-Za-z_])
\W           not word characters (== [^0-9A-Za-z_])

ASCII character classes::
Note -- you must use these within a [] group! so if you want
to match any number of spaces, use [[:space:]]* or \s*

[:alnum:]    alphanumeric (== [0-9A-Za-z])
[:alpha:]    alphabetic (== [A-Za-z])
[:ascii:]    ASCII (== [\x00-\x7F])
[:blank:]    blank (== [\t ])
[:cntrl:]    control (== [\x00-\x1F\x7F])
[:digit:]    digits (== [0-9])
[:graph:]    graphical (== [!-~] ==
[A-Za-z0-9!"#$%&'()*+,\-./:;<=>?@[\\\]^_{|}~]) [:lower:] lower case (== [a-z]) [:print:] printable (== [ -~] == [[:graph:]]) [:punct:] punctuation (== [!-/:-@[-{-~]) [:space:] whitespace (== [\t\n\v\f\r ]) [:upper:] upper case (== [A-Z]) [:word:] word characters (== [0-9A-Za-z_]) [:xdigit:] hex digit (== [0-9A-Fa-f]) Unicode character class names--general category: C other Cc control Cf format Co private use Cs surrogate L letter Ll lowercase letter Lm modifier letter Lo other letter Lt titlecase letter Lu uppercase letter M mark Mc spacing mark Me enclosing mark Mn non-spacing mark N number Nd decimal number Nl letter number No other number P punctuation Pc connector punctuation Pd dash punctuation Pe close punctuation Pf final punctuation Pi initial punctuation Po other punctuation Ps open punctuation S symbol Sc currency symbol Sk modifier symbol Sm math symbol So other symbol Z separator Zl line separator Zp paragraph separator Zs space separator Unicode character class names--scripts (with explanation where non-trivial): Arabic Armenian Balinese Bengali Bopomofo Braille Buginese Buhid Canadian_Aboriginal Carian Cham Cherokee Common characters not specific to one script Coptic Cuneiform Cypriot Cyrillic Deseret Devanagari Ethiopic Georgian Glagolitic Gothic Greek Gujarati Gurmukhi Han Hangul Hanunoo Hebrew Hiragana Inherited inherit script from previous character Kannada Katakana Kayah_Li Kharoshthi Khmer Lao Latin Lepcha Limbu Linear_B Lycian Lydian Malayalam Mongolian Myanmar New_Tai_Lue aka Simplified Tai Lue Nko Ogham Ol_Chiki Old_Italic Old_Persian Oriya Osmanya Phags_Pa Phoenician Rejang Runic Saurashtra Shavian Sinhala Sundanese Syloti_Nagri Syriac Tagalog Tagbanwa Tai_Le Tamil Telugu Thaana Thai Tibetan Tifinagh Ugaritic Vai Yi Vim character classes: \d digits (== [0-9]) \D not «\d» \w word character \W not «\w»  ## Regular Expression Types and Methods¶ class BadRegexpError: Error var msg: string proc init(msg: string) override proc message() proc compile(pattern: string, utf8 = true, posix = false, literal = false, nocapture = false, ignorecase = false, multiline = false, dotnl = false, nongreedy = false): regexp throws Compile a regular expression. If the optional error argument is provided, this routine will return an error code if compilation failed. Otherwise, it will halt with an error message. Arguments: pattern -- the string regular expression to compile. See RE2 regular expression syntax reference for details. Note that you may have to escape backslashes. For example, to get the regular expression \s, you'd have to write "\\s" because the \ is the escape character within Chapel string literals utf8 -- (optional, default true) set to true to create a regular expression matching UTF-8; false for binary or ASCII only. posix -- (optional) set to true to disable non-POSIX regular expression syntax literal -- (optional) set to true to treat the regular expression as a literal (ie, create a regexp matching pattern as a string rather than as a regular expression). nocapture -- (optional) set to true in order to disable all capture groups in the regular expression ignorecase -- (optional) set to true in order to ignore case when matching. Note that this can be set inside the regular expression with (?i). multiline -- (optional) set to true in order to activate multiline mode (meaning that ^ and $ match the beginning and end of a line instead of just the beginning and end of the text. Note that this can be set inside a regular expression with (?m). dotnl -- (optional, default false) set to true in order to allow . to match a newline. Note that this can be set inside the regular expression with (?s). nongreedy -- (optional) set to true in order to prefer shorter matches for repetitions; for example, normally x* will match as many x characters as possible and x*? will match as few as possible. This flag swaps the two, so that x* will match as few as possible and x*? will match as many as possible. Note that this flag can be set inside the regular expression with (?U).
record reMatch

The reMatch record records a regular expression search match or a capture group.

Regular expression search routines normally return one of these. Also, this type can be passed as a capture group argument. Lastly, something of type reMatch can be checked for a match in a simple if statement, as in:

var m:reMatch = ...;
if m then do_something_if_matched();
if !m then do_something_if_not_matched();

var matched: bool

true if the regular expression search matched successfully

var offset: int

0-based offset into the string or channel that matched; -1 if matched=false

var length: int

the length of the match. 0 if matched==false

proc string.this(m: reMatch)

This function extracts the part of a string matching a regular expression or capture group. This method is intended to be called on the same string used as the text in a regular expression search.

Arguments: m -- a match (e.g. returned by regexp.search) the portion of this referred to by the match
record regexp

This class represents a compiled regular expression. Regular expressions are currently cached on a per-thread basis and are reference counted. To create a compiled regular expression, use the compile function.

A regexp can be cast to a string (resulting in the pattern that was compiled). A string can be cast to a regexp (resulting in a compiled regexp).

proc init()
proc init=(x: regexp)
proc ok: bool

did this regular expression compile ?

proc error(): string
Returns: a string describing any error encountered when compiling this regular expression
proc search(text: ?t, ref captures ...?k): reMatch

Search within the passed text for the first match at any offset to this regular expression. This routine will try matching the regular expression at different offsets until a match is found. If you want to only match at the beginning of the pattern, you can start your pattern with ^ and end it with \$ or use regexp.match. If a capture group was not matched, the corresponding argument will get the default value for its type.

Arguments: text -- a string to search captures -- (optional) what to capture from the regular expression. These should be strings or types that strings can cast to. an reMatch object representing the offset in text where a match occurred
proc match(text: ?t, ref captures ...?k): reMatch

Check for a match to this regular expression at the start of the passed text. If a capture group was not matched, the corresponding argument will get the default value for its type.

For example, this function can be used to check to see if a string fits a particular template:

if myregexp.match("some string") {
do_something_if_matched();
}

Arguments: text -- a string to search captures -- what to capture from the regular expression. These should be strings or types that strings can cast to. an reMatch object representing the offset in text where a match occurred
iter split(text: ?t, maxsplit: int = 0)

Split the text by occurrences of this regular expression. If capturing parentheses are used in pattern, then the text of all groups in the pattern are also returned as part of the resulting array. If maxsplit is nonzero, at most maxsplit splits occur, and the remaining text is returned as the last element.

Arguments: text -- a string to split maxsplit -- if nonzero, the maximum number of splits to do each split portion, one at a time
iter matches(text: ?t, param captures = 0, maxmatches: int = max(int))

Enumerates matches in the string as well as capture groups.

Arguments: text -- the string to search captures -- (compile-time constant) the size of the captures to return maxmatches -- the maximum number of matches to return tuples of reMatch objects, the 1st is always the match for the whole pattern and the rest are the capture groups.
proc subn(repl: string, text: ?t, global = true): (string, int)

Perform the same operation as regexp.sub but return a tuple containing the new string and the number of substitutions made.

Arguments: repl -- replace matches with this string text : string -- the text to search and replace within global -- if true, replace multiple matches a tuple containing (new string, number of substitutions made)
proc sub(repl: string, text: ?t, global = true)

Find matches to this regular expression and create a new string in which those matches are replaced by repl.

Arguments: repl -- replace matches with this string text : string -- the text to search and replace within global -- if true, replace multiple matches the new string
proc string.search(needle: string, ignorecase = false): reMatch

Compile a regular expression and search the receiving string for matches at any offset using regexp.search.

Arguments: needle -- the regular expression to search for ignorecase -- true to ignore case in the regular expression an reMatch object representing the offset in the receiving string where a match occurred
proc string.search(needle: regexp, ref captures ...?k): reMatch

Search the receiving string for a regular expression already compiled by calling regexp.search. Search for matches at any offset.

Arguments: needle -- the compiled regular expression to search for captures -- (optional) what to capture from the regular expression. These should be strings or types that strings can cast to. an reMatch object representing the offset in the receiving string where a match occurred
proc string.match(pattern: regexp, ref captures ...?k): reMatch

Match the receiving string to a regular expression already compiled by calling regexp.match. Note that function only returns a match if the start of the string matches the pattern. Use string.search to search for the pattern at any offset.

Arguments: pattern -- the compiled regular expression to match captures -- (optional) what to capture from the regular expression. These should be strings or types that strings can cast to. an reMatch object representing the offset in the receiving string where a match occurred
iter string.split(pattern: regexp, maxsplit: int = 0)

Split the the receiving string by occurrences of the passed regular expression by calling regexp.split.

Arguments: pattern -- the regular expression to use to split maxsplit -- if nonzero, the maximum number of splits to do each split portion, one at a time
iter string.matches(pattern: regexp, param captures = 0, maxmatches: int = max(int))

Enumerates matches in the receiving string as well as capture groups by calling regexp.matches.

Arguments: pattern -- the regular expression to find matches captures -- (compile-time constant) the size of the captures to return maxmatches -- the maximum number of matches to return tuples of reMatch objects, the 1st is always the match for the whole pattern and the rest are the capture groups.