List

Usage

use List;

or

import List;

This module contains the implementation of Chapel’s standard ‘list’ type.

A list is a lightweight container similar to an array that is suitable for building up and iterating over a collection of elements in a structured manner.

The highly parallel nature of Chapel means that great care should be taken when performing operations that may invalidate references to list elements. Inserts and removals into the middle of a list are example operations that may invalidate references. Appending an element to the end of a list will never invalidate references to elements contained in the list.

The following operations may invalidate references to elements contained in a list:

  • insert

  • remove

  • sort

  • pop

  • clear

Additionally, all references to list elements are invalidated when the list is deinitialized.

Lists are not parallel safe by default, but can be made parallel safe by setting the param formal parSafe to true in any list constructor. When constructed from another list, the new list will inherit the parallel safety mode of its originating list.

Inserts and removals into a list are O(n) worst case and should be performed with care. Appends into a list have an amortized speed of O(1). Indexing into a list is O(1).

record list

A list is a lightweight container suitable for building up and iterating over a collection of elements in a structured manner. Unlike a stack, the list type also supports inserts or removals into the middle of the list. The list type is close in spirit to its Python counterpart, with fast O(1) random access and append operations.

The list type is not parallel safe by default. For situations in which such protections are desirable, parallel safety can be enabled by setting parSafe = true in any list constructor.

Unlike an array, the set of indices of a list is always 0..<size.

type eltType

The type of the elements contained in this list.

param parSafe = false

If true, this list will perform parallel safe operations.

proc init(type eltType, param parSafe = false)

Initializes an empty list.

Arguments
  • eltType – The type of the elements of this list.

  • parSafe : param bool – If true, this list will use parallel safe operations.

proc init(other: list(?t), param parSafe = false)

Initializes a list containing elements that are copy initialized from the elements contained in another list.

Used in new expressions.

Arguments
  • other – The list to initialize from.

  • parSafe : param bool – If true, this list will use parallel safe operations.

proc init(other: [?d] ?t, param parSafe = false)

Initializes a list containing elements that are copy initialized from the elements contained in an array.

Used in new expressions.

Arguments
  • other – The array to initialize from.

  • parSafe : param bool – If true, this list will use parallel safe operations.

proc init(other: range(?t), param parSafe = false)

Initializes a list containing elements that are copy initialized from the elements yielded by a range.

Used in new expressions.

Note

Attempting to initialize a list from an unbounded range will trigger a compiler error.

Arguments
  • other – The range to initialize from.

  • parSafe : param bool – If true, this list will use parallel safe operations.

proc init(other: _iteratorRecord, param parSafe = false)

Initializes a list containing elements that are copy initialized from the elements yielded by an iterator expression.

Used in new expressions.

Arguments
  • other – The iterator expression to initialize from.

  • parSafe : param bool – If true, this list will use parallel safe operations.

proc init=(other: list)

Initializes a list containing elements that are copy initialized from the elements contained in another list.

this.parSafe will default to false if it is not yet set.

Arguments

other – The list to initialize from.

proc init=(other: [])

Initializes a list containing elements that are copy initialized from the elements contained in an array.

this.parSafe will default to false if it is not yet set.

Arguments

other – The array to initialize from.

proc init=(other: range(?))

Initializes a list containing elements that are copy initialized from the elements yielded by a range.

this.parSafe will default to false if it is not yet set.

Note

Attempting to initialize a list from an unbounded range will trigger a compiler error.

Arguments

other – The range to initialize from.

proc init=(other: _iteratorRecord)

Initializes a list containing elements that are copy initialized from the elements yielded by an iterator expression.

this.parSafe will default to false if it is not yet set.

Arguments

other – The iterator expression to initialize from.

proc ref append(in x: this.eltType): int

Add an element to the end of this list.

Arguments

x : eltType – An element to append.

Returns

List index where element was inserted.

Return type

int

proc ref append(other: list(eltType, ?p))

Append a copy of each element contained in another list to the end of this list.

Arguments

other : list(eltType) – A list containing elements of the same type as those contained in this list.

Returns

List indices where elements were inserted.

Return type

range

proc ref append(other: [?d] eltType)

Append a copy of each element contained in an array to the end of this list.

Arguments

other : [?d] eltType – An array containing elements of the same type as those contained in this list.

Returns

List indices where elements were inserted.

Return type

range

proc ref append(other: range(eltType, ?b, ?d))

Append a copy of each element yielded by a range to the end of this list.

Note

Attempting to initialize a list from an unbounded range will trigger a compiler error.

Arguments

other : range(eltType) – The range to initialize from.

Returns

List indices where elements were inserted.

Return type

range

proc contains(x: eltType): bool

Returns true if this list contains an element equal to the value of x, and false otherwise.

Arguments

x : eltType – An element to search for.

Returns

true if this list contains x.

Return type

bool

proc ref first() ref

Returns a reference to the first item in this list.

Warning

Calling this method on an empty list will cause the currently running program to halt. If the –fast flag is used, no safety checks will be performed.

Returns

A reference to the first item in this list.

Return type

ref eltType

proc ref last() ref

Returns a reference to the last item in this list.

Warning

Calling this method on an empty list will cause the currently running program to halt. If the –fast flag is used, no safety checks will be performed.

Returns

A reference to the last item in this list.

Return type

ref eltType

proc ref extend(other: list(eltType, ?p))

Warning

list.extend is deprecated, please use list.append

proc ref extend(other: [?d] eltType)

Warning

list.extend is deprecated, please use list.append

proc ref extend(other: range(eltType, ?b, ?d))

Warning

list.extend is deprecated, please use list.append

proc ref insert(idx: int, in x: eltType): bool

Insert an element at a given position in this list, shifting all elements currently at and following that index one to the right. The call a.insert(0, x) inserts an element at the front of the list a, and a.insert((a.size), x) is equivalent to a.append(x).

If the insertion is successful, this method returns true. If the given index is out of bounds, this method does nothing and returns false.

Warning

Inserting an element into this list may invalidate existing references to the elements contained in this list.

Arguments
  • idx : int – The index into this list at which to insert.

  • x : eltType – The element to insert.

Returns

true if x was inserted, false otherwise.

Return type

bool

proc ref insert(idx: int, arr: [?d] eltType): bool

Insert an array of elements arr into this list at index idx, shifting all elements at and following the index arr.size positions to the right.

If the insertion is successful, this method returns true. If the given index is out of bounds, this method does nothing and returns false.

Warning

Inserting elements into this list may invalidate existing references to the elements contained in this list.

Arguments
  • idx : int – The index into this list at which to insert.

  • arr – An array of elements to insert.

Returns

true if arr was inserted, false otherwise.

Return type

bool

proc ref insert(idx: int, lst: list(eltType)): bool

Insert a list of elements lst into this list at index idx, shifting all elements at and following the index lst.size positions to the right.

If the insertion is successful, this method returns true. If the given index is out of bounds, this method does nothing and returns false.

Warning

Inserting elements into this list may invalidate existing references to the elements contained in this list.

Arguments
  • idx : int – The index into this list at which to insert.

  • lst : list(eltType) – A list of elements to insert.

Returns

true if lst was inserted, false otherwise.

Return type

bool

proc ref remove(x: eltType, count: int = 1): int

Remove the first count elements from this list with values equal to x, shifting all elements following the removed item left.

If the count of elements to remove is less than or equal to zero, then all elements from this list equal to the value of x will be removed.

Warning

Removing elements from this list may invalidate existing references to the elements contained in this list.

Arguments
  • x : eltType – The value of the element to remove.

  • count : int – The number of elements to remove.

Returns

The number of elements removed.

Return type

int

proc ref pop(): eltType

Remove the element at the end of this list and return it.

Warning

Popping an element from this list will invalidate any reference to the element taken while it was contained in this list.

Warning

Calling this method on an empty list will cause the currently running program to halt. If the –fast flag is used, no safety checks will be performed.

Returns

The element popped.

Return type

eltType

proc ref pop(idx: int): eltType

Remove the element at the index idx from this list and return it. The elements at indices after idx are shifted one to the left in memory, making this operation O(n).

Warning

Popping an element from this list will invalidate any reference to the element taken while it was contained in this list.

Warning

Calling this method on an empty list or with values of idx that are out of bounds will cause the currently running program to halt. If the –fast flag is used, no safety checks will be performed.

Arguments

idx : int – The index of the element to remove.

Returns

The element popped.

Return type

eltType

proc ref clear()

Clear the contents of this list.

Warning

Clearing the contents of this list will invalidate all existing references to the elements contained in this list.

proc indexOf(x: eltType, start: int = 0, end: int = -1): int

Return a zero-based index into this list of the first item whose value is equal to x. If no such element can be found or if the list is empty, this method returns the value -1.

Warning

indexOf on lists is deprecated, use find instead.

Arguments
  • x : eltType – An element to search for.

  • start : int – The start index to start searching from.

  • end : int – The end index to stop searching at. A value less than 0 will search the entire list.

Returns

The index of the element to search for, or -1 on error.

Return type

int

proc find(x: eltType, start: int = 0, end: int = -1): int

Return a zero-based index into this list of the first item whose value is equal to x. If no such element can be found or if the list is empty, this method returns the value -1.

Warning

Calling this method with values of start or end that are out of bounds will cause the currently running program to halt. If the –fast flag is used, no safety checks will be performed.

Arguments
  • x : eltType – An element to search for.

  • start : int – The start index to start searching from.

  • end : int – The end index to stop searching at. A value less than 0 will search the entire list.

Returns

The index of the element to search for, or -1 on error.

Return type

int

proc count(x: eltType): int

Return the number of times a given element is found in this list.

Arguments

x : eltType – An element to count.

Returns

The number of times a given element is found in this list.

Return type

int

proc ref sort(comparator: ?rec = Sort.defaultComparator)

Sort the items of this list in place using a comparator. If no comparator is provided, sort this list using the default sort order of its elements.

Warning

Sorting the elements of this list may invalidate existing references to the elements contained in this list.

Arguments

comparator – A comparator used to sort this list.

proc getValue(i: int): eltType

Return a copy of the element at a given index in this list.

Arguments

i – The index of the element to get.

Warning

Use of the getValue method with an out of bounds index (while bounds checking is on) will cause the currently running program to halt.

Returns

A copy of an element from this list.

proc getBorrowed(i: int)

Return a borrow of the element at a given index in this list. This method can only be called when this list’s element type is a class type.

Arguments

i : int – The index of the element to borrow.

Returns

A borrow of an element from this list.

proc ref set(i: int, in x: eltType): bool

Sets the element at a given index in this list. This method returns false if the index is out of bounds.

Arguments
  • i : int – The index of the element to set

  • x – The value to set at index i

Returns

true if i is a valid index that has been set to x, and false otherwise.

Return type

bool

proc update(i: int, updater) throws

Update a value in this list in a parallel safe manner via an updater object.

The updater object passed to the update() method must define a this() method that takes two arguments: an integer index, and a second argument of this list’s valType. The updater object’s this() method must return some sort of value. Updater objects that do not need to return anything may return none.

If the updater object’s this() method throws, the thrown error will be propagated out of update().

Arguments
  • i : int – The index to update

  • updater – A class or record used to update the value at i

Returns

What the updater object returns

proc ref this(i: int) ref

Index this list via subscript. Returns a reference to the element at a given index in this list.

Arguments

i – The index of the element to access

Warning

Use of the this() method with an out of bounds index (while bounds checking is on) will cause the currently running program to halt.

Note

The this() method cannot be used with lists instantiated with a parSafe value of true. Attempting to do so will trigger a compiler error.

Returns

A reference to an element in this list

iter these() ref

Iterate over the elements of this list.

Yields

A reference to one of the elements contained in this list.

proc writeThis(ch: channel) throws

Write the contents of this list to a channel.

Arguments

ch – A channel to write to.

proc readThis(ch: channel) throws

Read the contents of this list from a channel.

Arguments

ch – A channel to read from.

proc isEmpty(): bool

Returns true if this list contains zero elements.

Returns

true if this list is empty.

Return type

bool

proc size

The current number of elements contained in this list.

proc indices

Returns the list’s legal indices as the range 0..<this.size.

Returns

0..<this.size

Return type

range

proc toArray(): [] eltType

Returns a new DefaultRectangular array containing a copy of each of the elements contained in this list.

Returns

A new DefaultRectangular array.

proc type list.=(ref lhs: list(?t, ?), rhs: list(t, ?))

Clear the contents of this list, then extend this now empty list with the elements contained in another list.

Warning

This will invalidate any references to elements previously contained in lhs.

Arguments
  • lhs – The list to assign to.

  • rhs – The list to assign from.

proc type list.==(a: list(?t, ?), b: list(t, ?)): bool

Returns true if the contents of two lists are the same.

Arguments
  • a – A list to compare.

  • b – A list to compare.

Returns

true if the contents of two lists are equal.

Return type

bool

proc type list.!=(a: list(?t, ?), b: list(t, ?)): bool

Return true if the contents of two lists are not the same.

Arguments
  • a – A list to compare.

  • b – A list to compare.

Returns

true if the contents of two lists are not equal.

Return type

bool

proc :(rhs: list, type t: list)
proc :(rhs: [], type t: list)
proc :(rhs: range(?), type t: list)
proc :(rhs: _iteratorRecord, type t: list)