Tuples¶

A tuple is an ordered set of components that allows for the specification of a light-weight collection of values. As the examples in this chapter illustrate, tuples are a boon to the Chapel programmer. In addition to making it easy to return multiple values from a function, tuples help to support multidimensional indices, to group arguments to functions, and to specify mathematical concepts.

Tuple Types¶

A tuple type is defined by a fixed number (a compile-time constant) of component types. It can be specified by a parenthesized, comma-separated list of types. The number of types in the list defines the size of the tuple; the types themselves specify the component types.

The syntax of a tuple type is given by:

tuple-type:
( type-expression , type-list )
( type-expression , )

type-list:
type-expression
type-expression , type-list

A homogeneous tuple is a special-case of a general tuple where the types of the components are identical. Homogeneous tuples have fewer restrictions for how they can be indexed (Tuple Indexing). Homogeneous tuple types can be defined using the above syntax, or they can be defined as a product of an integral parameter (a compile-time constant integer) and a type.

Rationale.

Homogeneous tuples require the size to be specified as a parameter (a compile-time constant). This avoids any overhead associated with storing the runtime size in the tuple. It also avoids the question as to whether a non-parameter size should be part of the type of the tuple. If a programmer requires a non-parameter value to define a data structure, an array may be a better choice.

Example (homogeneous.chpl).

The statement

var x1: (string, real),
x2: (int, int, int),
x3: 3*int;

defines three variables. Variable x1 is a 2-tuple with component types string and real. Variables x2 and x3 are homogeneous 3-tuples with component type int. The types of x2 and x3 are identical even though they are specified in different ways.

Note that if a single type is delimited by parentheses, the parentheses only impact precedence. Thus (int) is equivalent to int. Nevertheless, tuple types with a single component type are legal and useful. One way to specify a 1-tuple is to use the overloaded * operator since every 1-tuple is trivially a homogeneous tuple.

Rationale.

Like parentheses around expressions, parentheses around types are necessary for grouping in order to avoid the default precedence of the grammar. Thus it is not the case that we would always want to create a tuple. The type 3*(3*int) specifies a 3-tuple of 3-tuples of integers rather than a 3-tuple of 1-tuples of 3-tuples of integers. The type 3*3*int, on the other hand, specifies a 9-tuple of integers.

Tuple Values¶

A value of a tuple type attaches a value to each component type. Tuple values can be specified by a parenthesized, comma-separated list of expressions. The number of expressions in the list defines the size of the tuple; the types of these expressions specify the component types of the tuple. A trailing comma is allowed.

The syntax of a tuple expression is given by:

tuple-expression:
( tuple-component , )
( tuple-component , tuple-component-list )
( tuple-component , tuple-component-list , )

tuple-component:
expression
'_'

tuple-component-list:
tuple-component
tuple-component , tuple-component-list

An underscore can be used to omit components when splitting a tuple (see Splitting a Tuple with Assignment).

Example (values.chpl).

The statement

var x1: (string, real) = ("hello", 3.14),
x2: (int, int, int) = (1, 2, 3),
x3: 3*int = (4, 5, 6);

defines three tuple variables. Variable x1 is a 2-tuple with component types string and real. It is initialized such that the two components are "hello" and 3.14, respectively. Variables x2 and x3 are homogeneous 3-tuples with component type int. Their initialization expressions specify 3-tuples of integers.

Note that if a single expression is delimited by parentheses, the parentheses only impact precedence. Thus (1) is equivalent to 1. To specify a 1-tuple, use the form with the trailing comma (1,).

Example (onetuple.chpl).

The statement

var x: 1*int = (7,);

creates a 1-tuple of integers storing the value 7.

Tuple expressions are evaluated similarly to function calls where the arguments are all generic with no explicit intent. So a tuple expression containing an array does not copy the array.

When a tuple is passed as an argument to a function, it is passed as if it is a record type containing fields of the same type and in the same order as in the tuple.

Tuple Indexing¶

A tuple component may be accessed by an integral parameter (a compile-time constant) as if the tuple were an array. Indexing is 0-based, so the first component in the tuple is accessed by the index 0, and so forth.

Example (access.chpl).

The loop

var myTuple = (1, 2.0, "three");
for param i in 0..2 do
writeln(myTuple(i));

uses a param loop to output the components of a tuple.

Homogeneous tuples may be accessed by integral values that are not necessarily compile-time constants.

Example (access-homogeneous.chpl).

The loop

var myHTuple = (1, 2, 3);
for i in 0..2 do
writeln(myHTuple(i));

uses a serial loop to output the components of a homogeneous tuple. Since the index is not a compile-time constant, this would result in an error were tuple not homogeneous.

Rationale.

Non-homogeneous tuples can only be accessed by compile-time constants since the type of an expression must be statically known.

Iteration over Tuples¶

Homogeneous tuples support iteration via standard for, forall and coforall loops. These loops iterate over all of the tuple’s elements. A loop of the form:

[for|forall|coforall] e in t do
...e...

where t is a homogeneous tuple of size n, is semantically equivalent to:

[for|forall|coforall] i in 0..n-1 do
...t(i)...

The iterator variable for a tuple iteration is a either a const value or a reference to the tuple element type, following default intent semantics.

Heterogeneous tuples support iteration via standard for and coforall loops. These loops iterate over all of the tuple’s elements, giving each iteration its own index variable that is a const ref to the tuple element (note: this may change in the future to include const or ref index variables). Thus, a loop of the form:

for e in t do
...e...

where t is a heterogeneous tuple of size n is semantically equivalent to:

{ // iteration 0
const ref e = t(0);
...e...
}
{ // iteration 1
const ref e = t(1);
...e...
}
...
{ // iteration n-1
const ref e = t(n-1);
...e...
}

Similarly, a coforall loop is equivalent to the cobegin statement whose body is the series of compound statements from the serial case.

Tuple Assignment¶

In tuple assignment, the components of the tuple on the left-hand side of the assignment operator are each assigned the components of the tuple on the right-hand side of the assignment. These assignments occur in component order (component zero followed by component one, etc.).

Tuple Destructuring¶

Tuples can be split into their components in the following ways:

• In assignment where multiple expression on the left-hand side of the assignment operator are grouped using tuple notation.

• In variable declarations where multiple variables in a declaration are grouped using tuple notation.

• In for, forall, and coforall loops (statements and expressions) where multiple indices in a loop are grouped using tuple notation.

• In function calls where multiple formal arguments in a function declaration are grouped using tuple notation.

• In an expression context that accepts a comma-separated list of expressions where a tuple expression is expanded in place using the tuple expansion expression.

Splitting a Tuple with Assignment¶

When multiple expression on the left-hand side of an assignment operator are grouped using tuple notation, the tuple on the right-hand side is split into its components. The number of grouped expressions must be equal to the size of the tuple on the right-hand side. In addition to the usual assignment evaluation order of left to right, the assignment is evaluated in component order.

Example (splitting.chpl).

The code

var a, b, c: int;
(a, (b, c)) = (1, (2, 3));

defines three integer variables a, b, and c. The second line then splits the tuple (1, (2, 3)) such that 1 is assigned to a, 2 is assigned to b, and 3 is assigned to c.

Example (aliasing.chpl).

The code

var A = [i in 1..4] i;
writeln(A);
(A(1..2), A(3..4)) = (A(3..4), A(1..2));
writeln(A);

creates a non-distributed, one-dimensional array containing the four integers from 1 to 4. Line 2 outputs 1 2 3 4. Line 3 does what appears to be a swap of array slices. However, because the tuple is created with array aliases (like a function call), the assignment to the second component uses the values just overwritten in the assignment to the first component. Line 4 outputs 3 4 3 4.

When splitting a tuple with assignment, the underscore token can be used to omit storing some of the components. In this case, the full expression on the right-hand side of the assignment operator is evaluated, but the omitted values will not be assigned to anything.

Example (omit-component.chpl).

The code

proc f()
return (1, 2);

var x: int;
(x,_) = f();

defines a function that returns a 2-tuple, declares an integer variable x, calls the function, assigns the first component in the returned tuple to x, and ignores the other component in the returned tuple. The value of x becomes 1.

Splitting a Tuple in a Declaration¶

When multiple variables in a declaration are grouped using tuple notation, the tuple initialization expression is split into its type and/or value components. The number of grouped variables must be equal to the size of the tuple initialization expression. The variables are initialized in component order.

The syntax of grouped variable declarations is defined in Variable Declarations.

Example (decl.chpl).

The code

var (a, (b, c)) = (1, (2, 3));

defines three integer variables a, b, and c. It splits the tuple (1, (2, 3)) such that 1 initializes a, 2 initializes b, and 3 initializes c.

Grouping variable declarations using tuple notation allows a 1-tuple to be destructured by enclosing a single variable declaration in parentheses.

Example (onetuple-destruct.chpl).

The code

var (a) = (1, );

initialize the new variable a to 1.

When splitting a tuple into multiple variable declarations, the underscore token may be used to omit components of the tuple rather than declaring a new variable for them. In this case, no variables are defined for the omitted components.

Example (omit-component-decl.chpl).

The code

proc f()
return (1, 2);

var (x,_) = f();

defines a function that returns a 2-tuple, calls the function, declares and initializes variable x to the first component in the returned tuple, and ignores the other component in the returned tuple. The value of x is initialized to 1.

Splitting a Tuple into Multiple Indices of a Loop¶

When multiple indices in a loop are grouped using tuple notation, the tuple returned by the iterator (Iterators) is split across the index tuple’s components. The number of indices in the index tuple must equal the size of the tuple returned by the iterator.

Example (indices.chpl).

The code

iter bar() {
yield (1, 1);
yield (2, 2);
}

for (i,j) in bar() do
writeln(i+j);

defines a simple iterator that yields two 2-tuples before completing. The for-loop uses a tuple notation to group two indices that take their values from the iterator.

When a tuple is split across an index tuple, indices in the index tuple (left-hand side) may be omitted. In this case, no indices are defined for the omitted components.

However even when indices are omitted, the iterator is evaluated as if an index were defined. Execution proceeds as if the omitted indices are present but invisible. This means that the loop body controlled by the iterator may be executed multiple times with the same set of (visible) indices.

Splitting a Tuple into Multiple Formal Arguments in a Function Call¶

When multiple formal arguments in a function declaration are grouped using tuple notation, the actual expression is split into its components during a function call. The number of grouped formal arguments must be equal to the size of the actual tuple expression. The actual arguments are passed in component order to the formal arguments.

The syntax of grouped formal arguments is defined in Procedure Definitions.

Example (formals.chpl).

The function

proc f(x: int, (y, z): (int, int)) {
// body
}

is defined to take an integer value and a 2-tuple of integer values. The 2-tuple is split when the function is called into two formals. A call may look like the following:

f(1, (2, 3));

An implicit where clause is created when arguments are grouped using tuple notation, to ensure that the function is called with an actual tuple of the correct size. Arguments grouped in tuples may be nested arbitrarily. Functions with arguments grouped into tuples may not be called using named-argument passing on the tuple-grouped arguments.

In addition, tuple-grouped arguments may not be specified individually with types or default values (only in aggregate). They may not be specified with any qualifier appearing before the group of arguments (or individual arguments) such as inout or type. They may not be followed by ... to indicate that there are a variable number of them.

Example (implicit-where.chpl).

The function f defined as

proc f((x, (y, z))) {
writeln((x, y, z));
}

is equivalent to the function g defined as

proc g(t) where isTuple(t) && t.size == 2 && isTuple(t(1)) && t(1).size == 2 {
writeln((t(0), t(1)(0), t(1)(1)));
}

except without the definition of the argument name t.

Grouping formal arguments using tuple notation allows a 1-tuple to be destructured by enclosing a single formal argument in parentheses.

Example (grouping-Formals.chpl).

The empty function

proc f((x)) { }

accepts a 1-tuple actual with any component type.

When splitting a tuple into multiple formal arguments, the arguments that are grouped using the tuple notation may be omitted. In this case, no names are associated with the omitted components. The call is evaluated as if an argument were defined.

Splitting a Tuple via Tuple Expansion¶

Tuples can be expanded in place using the following syntax:

tuple-expand-expression:
( ... expression )

In this expression, the tuple defined by expression is expanded in place to represent its components. This can only be used in a context where a comma-separated list of components is valid.

Example (expansion.chpl).

Given two 2-tuples

var x1 = (1, 2.0), x2 = ("three", "four");

the following statement

var x3 = ((...x1), (...x2));

creates the 4-tuple x3 with the value (1, 2.0, "three", "four").

Example (expansion-2.chpl).

The following code defines two functions, a function first that returns the initial component of a tuple and a function rest that returns a tuple containing all of the remaining components:

proc first(t) where isTuple(t) {
return t(0);
}
proc rest(t) where isTuple(t) {
proc helper(first, rest...)
return rest;
return helper((...t));
}

Value Tuples and Referential Tuples¶

Throughout the next few sections, the terms referential tuple and value tuple are used frequently to describe two different ways that tuples can capture elements.

Tuple expressions or tuple arguments with default argument intent are two examples of referential tuples. They store elements by reference where it makes sense to do so. Referential tuples may be viewed as analogous to a group of function arguments that each have default argument intent.

Tuple variables or tuple arguments with in intent are two examples of value tuples. They store all elements by value and may store elements copy initialized from another tuple. Value tuples may be viewed as analogous to a group of function arguments that each have the in intent.

In short, some or all of the elements of a referential tuple may be references, while a value tuple will never contain a reference.

Tuple Expression Behavior¶

Tuple expressions are a form of referential tuple. Like most other referential tuples, tuple expressions capture each element based on the default argument intent of the element’s type.

More specifically:

• If the default argument intent of the element’s type is a variation of ref, then the tuple expression will refer to the element instead of capturing it by value.

• Otherwise, the tuple expression will capture the element by value.

Consider the following example:

Example (tuple-expression-behavior.chpl).

record R { var x: int; }

var a: [0..0] int;
var i: int;
var r: R;

//
// The int `i` is copied when captured into the tuple expression,
// but `a` and `r` are not.
//
test((a, i, r));

// Modify the globals, then print the tuple.
proc test(tup) {
a = 1;
i = 2;
r.x = 3;

// Outputs (1, 0, (x = 3)).
writeln(tup);
}

The tuple expression (a, i, r) will capture the array a and the record r by ref, but will create a copy of the integer i.

Rationale

Tuple expressions and other forms of referential tuple are designed to act like a light-weight bundle of arguments. They behave similarly to the individual arguments of a function call.

It would be prohibitively expensive for some argument types (such as arrays) to be copied by default when passed as an argument to a function call.

The same logic applies to tuple expressions. When the default argument intent of a value’s type is some form of ref, a tuple expression will capture the value by reference in order to avoid a potentially expensive copy operation.

Tuple Variable Behavior¶

Tuple variables are a form of value tuple. Like other value tuples, tuple variables will copy elements in a manner similar to passing the element to an in intent argument.

For example, in this code:

Example (tuple-variable-behavior.chpl).

record R { var x: int; }

var a: [0..0] int;
var i: int;
var r = new R(0);

// The tuple variable `tup` stores copies of `a`, `i`, and `r`.
var tup = (a, i, r);

a = 1;
i = 2;
r.x = 3;

// This will output (0, 0, (x = 0)).
writeln(tup);

Initialization of the tuple variable tup will make a copy of the array a, the record r, and the integer i. Because tup stores a copy of these three variables, changes made to them are not visible in tup when it is written to standard output.

Tuple Argument Intents¶

A tuple argument to a function may be either a referential tuple or a value tuple depending on its argument intent.

If the tuple argument has the default argument intent, then it is a referential tuple and some of its elements may be captured by ref depending on their default argument intent.

A tuple argument declared with const intent will work similarly to one with a default intent, except that all the elements of the tuple are considered to be const and cannot be modified.

If the tuple argument has the in or const in intent, then it is a value tuple. All of its elements are captured by value as though each element is passed to an in intent argument.

Tuple Argument Behavior¶

If a function argument is a tuple with the default argument intent and a value tuple (such as a tuple variable) is passed to it, the value tuple will be implicitly converted into a referential tuple. The resulting referential tuple may refer to elements from the original value tuple.

A conversion from referential tuple to value tuple also occurs when a referential tuple (such as a tuple expression) is passed to a tuple argument that has the in intent. The referential tuple will be converted to a value tuple by copy initializing each element.

Consider the following example:

Example (tuple-argument-behavior.chpl).

record R { var x: int; }

var modTup = (0, new R(0));

//
// The argument `tup` of `referentialTupleArg` is a referential tuple
// due to the default argument intent.
//
proc referentialTupleArg(tup) {

// Modify the module variable `modTup`.
modTup = (3, new R(6));

//
// Should print (0, (x = 6)). Recall that a tuple argument with the
// default argument intent copies integer elements.
//
writeln(tup);

//
// When `tup` is passed to `valueTupleArg`, a copy of each element
// is made because the `valueTup` argument has the `in` intent.
//
valueTupleArg(tup);

// Should still print (0, (x = 6)).
writeln(tup);
}

// The argument `valueTup` is a value tuple due to the `in` intent.
proc valueTupleArg(in valueTup) {
valueTup = (64, new R(128));
}

//
// When `modTup` is passed to `referentialTupleArg`, its first
// element is copied while its second element is passed as though
// it were `const ref`.
//
referentialTupleArg(modTup);

Tuple arguments with the ref intent are references to value tuples. Actual arguments are restricted to value tuples (a tuple variable or a returned tuple). Since the argument itself is passed by ref, the entire tuple will refer to a tuple from the call site.

Example (tuple-argument-ref-intent.chpl).

//
// Because the intent of `tup` is `ref`, only value tuples can be
// passed to `passTupleByRef`.
//
proc passTupleByRef(ref tup) {
tup = (64, 128);
}

var modTup = (0, 0);

//
// Passing `modTup` to `passTupleByRef` will construct a referential
// tuple where each element refers to an element from `modTup`.
//
passTupleByRef(modTup);

// Should print (64, 128).
writeln(modTup);

Tuple Return Behavior¶

When a tuple is returned from a function with ref or const ref return intent, it must refer to some form of value tuple that exists outside of the current scope. Otherwise there is a compilation error.

Functions that return by value always return a value tuple. If an expression returned by such a function is a referential tuple, it will be implicitly converted to a value tuple.

Example (tuple-return-behavior.chpl).

record R { var x: int; }
var a: [0..0] int;
var i: int;
var r = new R(0);

//
// The value tuple returned by `returnTuple` is passed to the
// function `updateGlobalsAndOutput`. It is implicitly converted
// into a referential tuple because the formal argument `tup`
// has the default argument intent.
//
updateGlobalsAndOutput(returnTuple());

//
// The function `returnTuple` returns a value tuple that contains
// a copy of the array `a`, the integer `i`, and the record `r`.
//
proc returnTuple() {
return (a, i, r);
}

proc updateGlobalsAndOutput(tup) {
a = 1;
i = 2;
r.x = 3;

//
// Because the tuple passed to `updateGlobalsAndOutput` is a value
// tuple and contains no references, the assignments made to `a`,
// `i`, and `r` above are not visible in `tup` when it is printed.
// This `writeln` will output (0, 0, (x = 0)).
//
writeln(tup);
}

Tuple Operators¶

Unary Operators¶

The unary operators +, -, ~, and ! are overloaded on tuples by applying the operator to each argument component and returning the results as a new tuple.

The size of the result tuple is the same as the size of the argument tuple. The type of each result component is the result type of the operator when applied to the corresponding argument component.

The type of every element of the operand tuple must have a well-defined operator matching the unary operator being applied. That is, if the element type is a user-defined type, it must supply an overloaded definition for the unary operator being used. Otherwise, a compile-time error will be issued.

Binary Operators¶

The binary operators +, -, *, /, %, **, &, |, ^, <<, and >> are overloaded on tuples by applying them to pairs of the respective argument components and returning the results as a new tuple. The sizes of the two argument tuples must be the same. These operators are also defined for homogeneous tuples and scalar values of matching type.

The size of the result tuple is the same as the argument tuple(s). The type of each result component is the result type of the operator when applied to the corresponding pair of the argument components.

When a tuple binary operator is used, the same operator must be well-defined for successive pairs of operands in the two tuples. Otherwise, the operation is illegal and a compile-time error will result.

Example (binary-ops.chpl).

The code

var x = (1, 1, "1") + (2, 2.0, "2");

creates a 3-tuple of an int, a real and a string with the value (3, 3.0, "12").

Relational Operators¶

The relational operators >, >=, <, <=, ==, and != are defined over tuples of matching size. They return a single boolean value indicating whether the two arguments satisfy the corresponding relation.

The operators >, >=, <, and <= check the corresponding lexicographical order based on pair-wise comparisons between the argument tuples’ components. The operators == and != check whether the two arguments are pair-wise equal or not. The relational operators on tuples may be short-circuiting, i.e. they may execute only the pair-wise comparisons that are necessary to determine the result.

However, just as for other binary tuple operators, the corresponding operation must be well-defined on each successive pair of operand types in the two operand tuples. Otherwise, a compile-time error will result.

Example (relational-ops.chpl).

The code

var x = (1, 1, 0) > (1, 0, 1);

creates a variable initialized to true. After comparing the first components and determining they are equal, the next components are compared to determine that the first tuple is greater than the second tuple.

Predefined Functions and Methods on Tuples¶

proc tuple.size param

Returns the size of the tuple.

proc tuple.indices

Returns the range 1..this.size representing the indices that are legal for indexing into the tuple.

proc isHomogeneousTuple(t: tuple) param

Returns true if t is a homogeneous tuple; otherwise false.

proc isTuple(t: tuple) param

Returns true if t is a tuple; otherwise false.

proc isTupleType(type t) param

Returns true if t is a tuple of types; otherwise false.

proc max(type t) where isTupleType(t)

Returns a tuple of type t with each component set to the maximum value that can be stored in its position.

proc min(type t) where isTupleType(t)

Returns a tuple of type t with each component set to the minimum value that can be stored in its position.