Domain and Array Operations¶
Distribution, Domain and Array Equality operators¶
Equality operators are defined to test if two distributions are equivalent or not:
dist1 == dist2
dist1 != dist2
Or to test if two domains are equivalent or not:
dom1 == dom2
dom1 != dom2
Arrays are promoted, so the result of the equality operators is
an array of booleans. To get a single result use the equals
method instead.
arr1 == arr2 // compare each element resulting in an array of booleans
arr1 != arr2 // compare each element resulting in an array of booleans
arr1.equals(arr2) // compare entire arrays resulting in a single boolean
Miscellaneous Domain and Array Operators¶
The domain count operator #
¶
The #
operator can be applied to dense rectangular domains
with a tuple argument whose size matches the rank of the domain
(or optionally an integer in the case of a 1D domain). The operator
is equivalent to applying the #
operator to the component
ranges of the domain and then using them to slice the domain.
The array count operator #
¶
The #
operator can be applied to dense rectangular arrays
with a tuple argument whose size matches the rank of the array
(or optionally an integer in the case of a 1D array). The operator
is equivalent to applying the #
operator to the array's domain
and using the result to slice the array.
The array swap operator <=>
¶
The <=>
operator can be used to swap the contents of two arrays
with the same shape.
Set Operations on Associative Domains and Arrays¶
Associative domains and arrays support a number of operators for set manipulations. The supported set operators are:
+ ,  Union & Intersection  Difference ^ Symmetric Difference
Consider the following code where A
and B
are associative arrays:
var C = A op B;
The result C
is a new associative array backed by a new associative
domain. The domains of A
and B
are not modified by op
.
There are also op=
variants that store the result into the first operand.
Consider the following code where A
and B
are associative arrays:
A op= B;
A
must not share its domain with another array, otherwise the program
will halt with an error message.
For the +=
and =
operators, the value from B
will overwrite
the existing value in A
when indices overlap.
Parallel Safety with respect to Arrays and Domains¶
Users must take care when applying operations to arrays and domains concurrently from distinct tasks. For instance, if one task is modifying the index set of a domain while another task is operating on either the domain itself or an array declared over that domain, this represents a race and could have arbitrary consequences including incorrect results and program crashes. While making domains and arrays safe with respect to such concurrent operations would be appealing, Chapel's current position is that such safety guarantees would be prohibitively expensive.
Chapel arrays do support concurrent reads, writes, iterations, and operations as long as their domains are not being modified simultaneously. Such operations are subject to Chapel's memory consistency model like any other memory accesses. Similarly, tasks may make concurrent queries and iterations on a domain as long as another task is not simultaneously modifying the domain's index set.
By default, associative (and opaque) domains permit multiple tasks
to modify their index sets concurrently. This adds some amount of
overhead to these operations. If the user knows that all such
modifications will be done serially or in a parallelsafe context,
the overheads can be avoided by setting parSafe
to false
in
the domain's type declaration. For example, the following
declaration creates an associative domain of strings where the
implementation will do nothing to ensure that simultaneous
modifications to the domain are parallelsafe:
var D: domain(string, parSafe=false);
As with any other domain type, it is not safe to access an
associative array while its domain is changing, regardless of
whether parSafe
is set to true
or false
.
Functions and Methods on Arrays and Domains¶

proc
isRectangularDom
(d: domain) param¶ Return true if the argument
d
is a rectangular domain. Otherwise return false.

proc
isRectangularArr
(a: []) param¶ Return true if the argument
a
is an array with a rectangular domain. Otherwise return false.

proc
isIrregularDom
(d: domain) param¶ Return true if
d
is an irregular domain; e.g. is not rectangular. Otherwise return false.

proc
isIrregularArr
(a: []) param¶ Return true if
a
is an array with an irregular domain; e.g. not rectangular. Otherwise return false.

proc
isAssociativeDom
(d: domain) param¶ Return true if
d
is an associative domain. Otherwise return false.

proc
isAssociativeArr
(a: []) param¶ Return true if
a
is an array with an associative domain. Otherwise return false.

proc
isOpaqueDom
(d: domain) param¶ Return true if
d
is an opaque domain. Otherwise return false.

proc
isSparseDom
(d: domain) param¶ Return true if
d
is a sparse domain. Otherwise return false.

proc
isSparseArr
(a: []) param¶ Return true if
a
is an array with a sparse domain. Otherwise return false.

type
domain
¶ The domain type

proc
dist
¶ Return the domain map that implements this domain

proc
rank
param¶ Return the number of dimensions in this domain

proc
idxType
type¶ Return the type of the indices of this domain

proc
intIdxType
type¶ The
idxType
as represented by an integer type. WhenidxType
is an enumerated type, this evaluates toint
. Otherwise, it evaluates toidxType
.

proc
stridable
param¶ Return true if this is a stridable domain

iter
these
()¶ Yield the domain indices

proc
this
(i: integral ...rank)¶

proc
dims
()¶ Return a tuple of ranges describing the bounds of a rectangular domain. For a sparse domain, return the bounds of the parent domain.

proc
dim
(d: int)¶ Return a range representing the boundary of this domain in a particular dimension.

proc
shape
¶ Return a tuple of
intIdxType
describing the size of each dimension. For a sparse domain, return the shape of the parent domain.

proc
clear
()¶ Remove all indices from this domain, leaving it empty

proc
add
(i)¶ Add index
i
to this domain. This method is also available as the+=
operator.The domain must be irregular.

proc
bulkAdd
(inds: [] _value.rank*(_value.idxType), dataSorted = false, isUnique = false, preserveInds = true)¶ Adds indices in
inds
to this domain in bulk.For sparse domains, an operation equivalent to this method is available with the
+=
operator, where the righthandside is an array. However, in that case, default values will be used for the flagsdataSorted
,isUnique
, andpreserveInds
. This method is available because in some cases, expensive operations can be avoided by setting those flags. To do so,bulkAdd
must be called explicitly (instead of+=
).Note
Right now, this method and the corresponding
+=
operator are only available for sparse domains. In the future, we expect that these methods will be available for all irregular domains.Arguments:  inds  Indices to be added.
inds
can be an array ofrank*idxType
or an array ofidxType
for 1D domains.  dataSorted : bool 
true
if data ininds
is sorted.  isUnique : bool 
true
if data ininds
has no duplicates.  preserveInds : bool 
true
if data ininds
needs to be preserved.
Returns: Number of indices added to the domain
Return type: int
 inds  Indices to be added.

proc
remove
(i)¶ Remove index
i
from this domain

proc
requestCapacity
(i)¶ Request space for a particular number of values in an domain.
Currently only applies to associative domains.

proc
size
¶ Return the number of indices in this domain

proc
numIndices
¶ Return the number of indices in this domain

proc
low
¶ Return the lowest index in this domain

proc
high
¶ Return the highest index in this domain

proc
stride
¶ Return the stride of the indices in this domain

proc
alignment
¶ Return the alignment of the indices in this domain

proc
first
¶ Return the first index in this domain

proc
last
¶ Return the last index in this domain

proc
alignedLow
¶ Return the low index in this domain factoring in alignment

proc
alignedHigh
¶ Return the high index in this domain factoring in alignment

proc
member
(i: _value.idxType ...rank)¶ Return true if
i
is a member of this domain. Otherwise return false.

proc
isSubset
(super: domain)¶ Return true if this domain is a subset of
super
. Otherwise returns false.

proc
isSuper
(sub: domain)¶ Return true if this domain is a superset of
sub
. Otherwise returns false.

proc
expand
(off: rank*(intIdxType))¶ Return a new domain that is the current domain expanded by
off(d)
in dimensiond
ifoff(d)
is positive or contracted byoff(d)
in dimensiond
ifoff(d)
is negative.

proc
expand
(off: intIdxType) Return a new domain that is the current domain expanded by
off
in all dimensions ifoff
is positive or contracted byoff
in all dimensions ifoff
is negative.

proc
exterior
(off: rank*(intIdxType))¶ Return a new domain that is the exterior portion of the current domain with
off(d)
indices for each dimensiond
. Ifoff(d)
is negative, compute the exterior from the low bound of the dimension; if positive, compute the exterior from the high bound.

proc
exterior
(off: intIdxType) Return a new domain that is the exterior portion of the current domain with
off
indices for each dimension. Ifoff
is negative, compute the exterior from the low bound of the dimension; if positive, compute the exterior from the high bound.

proc
interior
(off: rank*(intIdxType))¶ Return a new domain that is the interior portion of the current domain with
off(d)
indices for each dimensiond
. Ifoff(d)
is negative, compute the interior from the low bound of the dimension; if positive, compute the interior from the high bound.

proc
interior
(off: intIdxType) Return a new domain that is the interior portion of the current domain with
off
indices for each dimension. Ifoff
is negative, compute the interior from the low bound of the dimension; if positive, compute the interior from the high bound.

proc
translate
(off)¶ Return a new domain that is the current domain translated by
off(d)
in each dimensiond
.

proc
translate
(off) Return a new domain that is the current domain translated by
off
in each dimension.

proc
isEmpty
(): bool¶ Return true if the domain has no indices

proc
localSlice
(r ...rank)¶ Return a local view of the subarray (slice) defined by the provided range(s), halting if the slice contains elements that are not local.
Indexing into this local view is cheaper, because the indices are known to be local.

proc
localSlice
(d: domain) Return a local view of the subarray (slice) defined by the provided domain, halting if the slice contains elements that are not local.
Indexing into this local view is cheaper, because the indices are known to be local.

iter
sorted
(comparator: ?t = chpl_defaultComparator())¶ Yield the domain indices in sorted order

proc
safeCast
(type t: domain)¶ Cast a rectangular domain to another rectangular domain type. If the old type is stridable and the new type is not stridable, ensure that the stride was 1.

proc
targetLocales
()¶ Return an array of locales over which this domain has been distributed.

proc
hasSingleLocalSubdomain
() param¶ Return true if the local subdomain can be represented as a single domain. Otherwise return false.

proc
localSubdomain
()¶ Return the subdomain that is local to the current locale

iter
localSubdomains
()¶ Yield the subdomains that are local to the current locale

proc

type
array
¶ The array type

proc
eltType
type¶ The type of elements contained in the array

proc
idxType
type The type of indices used in the array's domain

proc
rank
param The number of dimensions in the array

iter
these
() ref Yield the array elements

proc
numElements
¶ Return the number of elements in the array

proc
size
Return the number of elements in the array

proc
reindex
(newDomain: domain)¶ Return an array view over a new domain. The new domain must be of the same rank and size as the original array's domain.
For example:
var A: [1..10] int; const D = {6..15}; ref reA = A.reindex(D); reA[6] = 1; // updates A[1]

proc
reindex
(newDims ...) Return an array view over a new domain defined implicitly by one or more newDims, which must be ranges. The new domain must be of the same rank and size as the original array's domain.
For example:
var A: [3..4, 5..6] int; ref reA = A.reindex(13..14, 15..16); reA[13,15] = 1; // updates A[3,5]

proc
IRV
¶ Return the Implicitly Represented Value for sparse arrays

iter
sorted
(comparator: ?t = chpl_defaultComparator()) Yield the array elements in sorted order.

proc
targetLocales
() Return an array of locales over which this array has been distributed.

proc
hasSingleLocalSubdomain
() param Return true if the local subdomain can be represented as a single domain. Otherwise return false.

proc
localSubdomain
() Return the subdomain that is local to the current locale

iter
localSubdomains
() Yield the subdomains that are local to the current locale

proc
isEmpty
(): bool Return true if the array has no elements

proc
back
()¶ Return the last element in the array. The array must be a rectangular 1D array.

proc
push_back
(in val: this.eltType)¶ Add element
val
to the back of the array, extending the array's domain by one. If the domain was{1..5}
it will become{1..6}
.The array must be a rectangular 1D array; its domain must be nonstridable and not shared with other arrays.

proc
push_back
(vals: []) Extend array with elements of array
vals
, extending the array's domain byvals.size
in the ascending direction.The array must be a rectangular 1D array; its domain must be nonstridable and not shared with other arrays.

proc
pop_back
()¶ Remove the last element from the array, reducing the size of the domain by one. If the domain was
{1..5}
it will become{1..4}
Returns the removed element.
The array must be a rectangular 1D array; its domain must be nonstridable and not shared with other arrays.

proc
front
()¶ Return the first element in the array. The array must be a rectangular 1D array.

proc
push_front
(in val: this.eltType)¶ Add element
val
to the front of the array, extending the array's domain by one. If the domain was{1..5}
it will become{0..5}
.The array must be a rectangular 1D array; its domain must be nonstridable and not shared with other arrays.

proc
push_front
(vals: []) Prepend array with elements of array
vals
, extending the array's domain byvals.size
in the descending direction.The array must be a rectangular 1D array; its domain must be nonstridable and not shared with other arrays.

proc
pop_front
()¶ Remove the first element of the array reducing the size of the domain by one. If the domain was
{1..5}
it will become{2..5}
.Returns the removed element.
The array must be a rectangular 1D array; its domain must be nonstridable and not shared with other arrays.

proc
insert
(pos: this.idxType, in val: this.eltType)¶ Insert element
val
into the array at indexpos
. Shift the array elements abovepos
up one index. If the domain was{1..5}
it will become{1..6}
.The array must be a rectangular 1D array; its domain must be nonstridable and not shared with other arrays.

proc
insert
(pos: this.idxType, vals: []) Insert elements of
vals
into the array at indexpos
. Shift the array elements abovepos
upvals.size
indices. If the domain was{1..5}
andvals.size
is3
,it will become{1..8}
.The array must be a rectangular 1D array; its domain must be nonstridable and not shared with other arrays.
Aliasing arguments are not supported for this method. For example, the following call would not work as intended:
var A = [1, 2, 3, 4]; A.insert(3, A); // Will result in runtime error

proc
remove
(pos: this.idxType) Remove the element at index
pos
from the array and shift the array elements abovepos
down one index. If the domain was{1..5}
it will become{1..4}
.The array must be a rectangular 1D array; its domain must be nonstridable and not shared with other arrays.

proc
remove
(pos: this.idxType, count: this.idxType) Remove
count
elements from the array starting at indexpos
and shift elements abovepos+count
down bycount
indices.The array must be a rectangular 1D array; its domain must be nonstridable and not shared with other arrays.

proc
remove
(pos: range(this.idxType, stridable = false)) Remove the elements at the indices in the
pos
range and shift the array elements down bypos.size
elements. If the domain was{1..5}
and this is called with2..3
as an argument, the new domain would be{1..3}
and the array would contain the elements formerly at positions 1, 4, and 5.The array must be a rectangular 1D array; its domain must be nonstridable and not shared with other arrays.

proc
reverse
()¶ Reverse the order of the values in the array.

proc
clear
() Remove all elements from the array leaving the domain empty. If the domain was
{5..10}
it will become{5..4}
.The array must be a rectangular 1D array; its domain must be nonstridable and not shared with other arrays.

proc
find
(val: this.eltType): (bool, index(this.domain))¶ Return a tuple containing
true
and the index of the first instance ofval
in the array, or ifval
is not found, a tuple containingfalse
and an unspecified value is returned.

proc
count
(val: this.eltType): int¶ Return the number of times
val
occurs in the array.

proc
shape
Return a tuple of integers describing the size of each dimension. For a sparse array, returns the shape of the parent domain.

proc

proc
array.
equals
(that: []): bool¶ Return true if all this array is the same size and shape as argument
that
and all elements of this array are equal to the corresponding element inthat
. Otherwise return false.

proc
isDmapType
(type t) param¶ Return true if
t
is a domain map type. Otherwise return false.

proc
isDmapValue
(e) param¶ Return true if
e
is a domain map. Otherwise return false.

proc
isDomainType
(type t) param¶ Return true if
t
is a domain type. Otherwise return false.

proc
isDomainValue
(e) param¶ Return true if
e
is a domain. Otherwise return false.

proc
isArrayType
(type t) param¶ Return true if
t
is an array type. Otherwise return false.

proc
isArrayValue
(e) param¶ Return true if
e
is an array. Otherwise return false.

proc
reshape
(A: [], D: domain)¶ Return a copy of the array
A
containing the same values but in the shape of the domainD
. The number of indices in the domain must equal the number of elements in the array. The elements ofA
are copied into the new array using the default iteration orders overD
andA
.